|T1||T1 is standard for digital transmission in the United States. It is a digital transmission link with a capacity of 1.544Mbps. T1 uses two pairs of normal twisted wires, the same as found in most residences. T1 normally handles 24 voice conversations, each one digitized at 64kbps. With more advanced digital voice encoding techniques, T1 can handle more voice channels.|
|T1 Framer||See Framer|
|T3||A type of data connection capable of transmitting a digital signal at 44Mbps. T3 lines are often used to link large computer networks, such as those that comprise the Internet.|
|Tachometer||A transducer used for measuring the rate of revolution of a shaft.|
|TAD||Total accumulated discharge (mA-hr)|
|tank circuit||See Resonant Circuit|
|Taper||In a potentiometer, taper refers to how the resistance varies as the pot's armature is rotated (or, for a slide pot, as its wiper slides; or for a solid state pot like the DS1802, as its input voltage is varied).
For a pot with a linear taper, the resistance varies linearly as the wiper moves.
For a pot with a logarithmic (log) taper, the resistance varies logarithmically with the wiper's motion. When used in an amplifier circuit, the output varies slowly as the pot is operated at the low end and varies more and more rapidly as the pot is operated toward the high end.
This is also called an audio taper because it is most commonly used for audio volume controls. The ear responds logarithmically (each doubling in signal is perceived as an equal step in volume). The ear is more sensitive to changes at lower volumes, so an audio volume control varies the signal slowly at lower settings and more rapidly at higher settings. The net effect is that the sound seems to vary smoothly through the pot's range.
|TC||Temperature coefficient; thermocouple; TURBOCHARGE (control bit)|
|TCP/IP||Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol: The protocols or conventions that computers use to communicate over the Internet.|
|TCXO||Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator: A crystal oscillator that includes circuitry that compensates for temperature variations, to maintain a more constant frequency.|
|TDD||Time Division Duplex, the second variation of WCDMA especially suited to indoor environments where there is a need for high traffic density.|
|TDD WLAN||See TDD|
|TDM||Time Division Multiplexing, a scheme in which numerous signals are combined for transmission on a single communications line or channel. Each signal is broken into many segments, each having very short duration.|
|TDMA||Time Division Multiple Access: A method of digital wireless-communications transmission. TDMA allows many users to access (in sequence) a single radio-frequency channel without interference, because it allocates unique time slots to each user within each channel.|
|TDMoP||TDMoP (TDM over Packets), or TDMoIP (TDM over IP), is the implementation of TDM over a packet-switching network. TDMoIP is a trademark of RAD Communications.
|TDSCDMA||Chinese Third Generation (3G) telecommunications standard. China's government allocated three frequency bands: 1880MHZ to ~1920MHz, 2010MHz to ~2025MHz, and 2300MHz to ~2400MHz.|
|TEC||A thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is a small cooling device that relies on a Peltier junction. Composed of two conductors made of different materials, a Peltier junction (discovered in 1833 by J.C. Peltier) acts as a heat pump which can cool or warm when current is passed through it.
The small size of the TEC allows precision thermal control of individual components such as fiber optic laser drivers, precision voltage references, or any other temperature critical device. Temperature-critical components are integrated with a TEC and a temperature monitor into a single thermally-engineered module.
A "thermoelectric controller" (also abbreviated TEC) is an electronic circuit that controls the current that drives the junction. These can be quite sophisticated. Many can drive a positive or negative current (so they can heat or cool), use PWM for efficiency, and incorporate control to regulate the amount of current. Examples of such circuits are linked below.
|TEDS||See Transducer Electronic Data Sheet|
|Television||A system for transmitting picture and sound over a distance, primarily via the standards for NTSC, PAL, or HDTV.
See: Video Basics
|Temp Sensor||See Analog Temperature Sensor|
|Temperature||The average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of a body or substance, perceived as warmth or coldness. Measured in degrees Fahrenheit, Celsius, or Kelvin.
See: Maxim's full line of thermal management integrated circuits.
|Temperature Comparator||An integrated circuit with a digital output that indicates whether a measured temperature is above or below a predetermined threshold.|
|Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator||See TCXO|
|Temperature Control||See Thermal Management|
|Temperature Management||See Thermal Management|
|Temperature Resistor||See Thermistor|
|Temperature Sensor||Temperature sensor that uses an external diode-connected transistor as the sensing element to measure temperatures external to the sensor (for example, on a circuit board or on the die of a CPU). Generally produces a digital output.|
|Temperature Shutdown||See Thermal Shutdown|
|Temperature Switch||A circuit that opens and closes a conductive path based on temperature.|
|Tesla||Tesla (abbreviated T) is a measure of magnetic flux density (B-field), named for engineer and inventor Nikola Tesla.|
|THD||Total Harmonic Distortion (THD): A measure of signal distortion which assesses the energy that occurs on harmonics of the original signal. It is specified as a percentage of the signal amplitude.
As an example, if a 12kHz signal is applied to the input, THD would look at energy on the output occurring at 24kHz, 36kHz, 48kHz, etc. and compare it to the energy occurring at 12kHz.
|THD+N||Total Harmonic Distortion Plus Noise (THD+N) is the sum of the two most important distortion components. THD is the distortion that occurs on harmonics of the original signal -- it is correlated with the signal. Noise is the more random, uncorrelated distortion. THD+N is their sum.|
|Thermal Control||See Thermal Management|
|Thermal Control Circuit||Circuit to monitor and control the temperature of something. For example the integrated temperature controller in Intel's processors.|
|Thermal Management||The use of various temperature monitoring devices and cooling methods, such as forced air flow, within a processor or FPGA-based system, to control overall temperature of ICs and internal cabinet temperatures.|
|Thermal Monitor||The integrated thermal control system used in Intel's processor devices.|
|Thermal Shutdown||Deactivating a circuit when a measured temperature is beyond a predetermined value.|
|Thermal Switch||See Temperature Switch|
|THERMDA||Thermal Diode Anode pin on AMD and Intel processors.|
|THERMDC||Thermal Diode Cathode pin on AMD and Intel processors.|
|Thermistor||A temperature-dependent resistor with a high temperature coefficient, usually composed of sintered semiconductor material.|
|Thermochron||A Thermochron device measures and records (logs) temperature. (Thermochron is a trademark of Maxim Integrated.)|
|Thermochron i-Button||See Thermochron|
|Thermochron iButton||See Thermochron|
|Thermocouple||A temperature sensor formed by the junction of two dissimilar metals. A thermocouple produces a voltage proportional to the difference in temperature between the hot junction and the lead wire (cold) junction.|
|thermoelectric cooler||See TEC|
|Thermostat||Circuit that indicates whether a measured temperature is above or below a particular temperature threshold or trip point. Used for thermal protection and simple temperature control systems.|
|THERMTRIP#||Pin name of the Thermal Trip digital output on Intel Pentium processors. The pin is asserted at a nominal die temperature of 135 degrees-C.|
|THERMTRIP_L||Pin name of the thermal trip output pin of AMD processors. The pin is asserted at a nominal die temperature of 125°C.|
|THINERGY MEC||See Micro Energy Cell|
|Third Order Input Intercept Point||See IIP3|
|Third Order Intercept Point||See IIP3|
|Three-State||A three-state, or Tri-State™, output has three electrical states: One, zero, and "Hi-Z," or "open." The hi-Z state is a high-impedance state in which the output is disconnected, leaving the signal open, to be driven by another device (or to be pulled up or down by a resistor provided to prevent an undefined state).
High-impedance schemes such as three-state are commonly used for a bus, in which several devices can be selected to drive the bus.
Tri-State™ is a trademark of National Semiconductor.
|Through-Hole||A method for mounting components on a printed circuit board (PCB) in which pins on the component are inserted into holes in the board and soldered in place.|
|TIA||See Transimpedance Amplifier|
|TIM||See Transient Intermodulation Distortion|
|Time Diversity||In radio systems, Time Diversity spreads a signal across multiple channels by placing multiple versions of the signal in different time slots.|
|Time Division Multiple Access||See TDMA|
|Time Division Multiplexing||See TDM|
|Timing Distortion||See Jitter|
|Tin Whiskers||Tin whiskers (also called Sn whiskers or metal whiskers) are microscopic, conductive, hair-like crystals that emanate spontaneously from pure tin (especially electroplated tin) surfaces. Whiskers form primarily on elemental metals, but have also been found on alloys. Crystals can form in any environment. The actual mechanism for their formation is not well understood.
Tin-lead (SnPb) finishes prevent tin whiskers. Maxim offers a SnPb solution for customers requiring a non-RoHS finish. It is available for virtually all lead-free products.
Tin whiskers are not dendrites. Dendrites are fern-like and grow on the surface of the metal in an environment with moisture present. Tin whiskers tend to grow orthogonally from the surface.
TINI® is Maxim's trademark for its family of highly integrated solutions for the consumer electronics market. The family includes ICs which integrate disparate functions to achieve advantages in board space. Examples include:
TINI is a registered trademark of Maxim IntegratedNote: Tiny Network Interface circuits are now called MxTNI™.
|Total Harmonic Distortion||See THD|
|Total Harmonic Distortion Plus Noise||See THD+N|
|Totem Pole||A standard CMOS output structure where a P-channel MOSFET is connected in series with an N-Channel MOSFET and the connection point between the two is the output. The P-FET sits on top of the N-FET like a "totem pole." Both gates are driven by the same signal. When the signal is low, the P-FET is on; when the signal is high, the N-FET is on. This creates a push-pull output using just two transistors.|
|TQFN||Thin version of the QFN package (the JEDEC "W" option) 0.8mm thick.|
|TQFP||Thin quad flat pack|
|Transceiver||A device that contains both a transmitter and receiver.
Common misspellings: Transciever, Tranceiver, Transeiver, Transiever, Tranciever, Transcever.
|Transconductance||The gain of a transconductance amplifier (an amp in which a change in input voltage causes a linear change in output current). The basic gain of vacuum tubes and FETs is expressed as transconductance. It is represented with the symbol gm.
The term derives from "transfer conductance" and is measured in siemens (S), where 1 siemens = 1 ampere per volt. It was formerly measured as "mho" (ohm spelled backwards).
|Transconductance Amplifier||An amplifier that converts a voltage to a current. Also known by several other terms (see synonym list). One synonym is OTA, or operational transconductance amplifier, a term that marries the terms transconductance amplifier and operational amplifier.
The term derives from "transfer conductance" and is measured in siemens (S), where 1 siemens = 1 ampere per volt. It is represented with the symbol gm. The basic gain of vacuum tubes and FETs is expressed as transconductance.
See: Transimpedance Amplifier Buffers Current Transformer
|Transducer Electronic Data Sheet||A Transducer Electronic Data Sheet, or TEDS, is a method for plug-and-play sensor and transducer hook-up in which the sensor's calibration information is stored within the device and downloaded to the master controller when requested. A standardized TEDS specification is being developed by the IEEE, as IEEE P 1451.4.|
|Transfer||Transfer refers to the amount of data transferred across a digital interface, exclusive of any extra bits used to encode the data.
The number of data transfers is less than the number of bits transmitted when encoded data has more bits than the raw data. As an example, a PCIe serial bus uses 10 bits to encode eight data bits. (Extra bit space may be used to encode a clock, error-detection redundancy, etc.)
Data rates are commonly expressed in transfers per second, gigatransfers per second (GT/s) and megatransfers per second (MT/s).
|transfer rate||See Transfer|
|Transformer||An inductive electrical device for changing the voltage of alternating current.
A transformer consists of two magnetically coupled coils. Alternating current in one (called the "primary") creates a changing magnetic field which induces a current in the second coil (the "secondary"). A core made of iron or ferrite generally connects the two coils, but higher frequency devices can work without a ferrous core.
Transformers have two primary functions: Voltage transformation and isolation:
Primary applications are for power and for signal isolation / impedance transformation.
An autotransformer is a transformer with a single coil with intermediate "taps" to effect the changed outgoing voltages. They do not provide isolation.
Transformer capacity is rated in kilovolt-amps (KVA): The volts x amps / 1000.
|Transient Intermodulation Distortion||Transient intermodulation distortion, or TIM, occurs in amplifiers that employ negative feedback when signal delays make the amplifier incapable of correcting distortion when exposed to fast, transient signals.|
|Transient Voltage Suppressor||See TVS|
|Transimpedance Amplifier||An amplifier which converts a current to a voltage. It is a familiar component in fiber-communications modules.
The unit for transresistance is the ohm.
See: Transimpedance Amplifier Buffers Current Transformer
|Transistor||A basic solid-state control device which allows or disallows current flow between two terminals, based on the voltage or current delivered to a third terminal.
Usually built from silicon but can be constructed from other semiconductor materials. There are two major types: The FET (field-effect transistor) and the bipolar junction transistor (BJT).
The first transistor was invented in 1947 at Bell Labs by Michael John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley.
|Transistor Sensor||See Remote Temperature Sensor|
|Transistor Temperature Sensor||See Junction Diode Sensor|
|Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol||See TCP/IP|
|Transmission Gate||See Analog Switch|
|Transmitter||A circuit that accepts signals or data in and translates them into a form that can be sent across a medium (transmitted), usually over a distance. The medium can be wireless or wired.
|Transresistance Amplifier||See Transimpedance Amplifier|
|trr||See Reverse Recovery Time|
|TS 16949||TS 16949 is an ISO Technical Specification that aligns previous American (QS-9000), German (VDA6.1), French (EAQF) and Italian (AVSQ) automotive quality systems standards within the global automotive industry. Together with ISO 9001:2000, ISO/TS 16949:2002 specifies the quality system requirements for the design/development, production, installation and servicing of automotive related products.|
|TS-16949||See TS 16949|
|TSOC||Thin small-outline C-lead|
|TSOP||Thin small-outline package|
|TSSM||Temperature sensor and system monitor|
|TSSOP||Thin shrink small-outline package|
|TTC||Temperature conversion sample time|
|TTFC||Time remaining to full charge|
|TTIMD||Two-tone intermodulation distortion|
|Tube Motor||See Tubular Motor|
|Tubular Motor||A tubular motor is an electric motor embedded in a cylindrical form factor. They are typically used for window shades and blinds, projection screens, awnings, roller doors, etc.|
|TUE||Total unadjusted error|
|tuned circuit||See Resonant Circuit|
|TVM||Test vector monitor|
|TVS||Transient Voltage Suppressor: Semiconductor device designed to protect a circuit from voltage and current transients. Typically implemented as a large silicon diode operating in avalanche mode to absorb large currents quickly.|
|Tweak||Tweak (or sometimes, "tweek") means to make small adjustments to a system to improve its performance.|
|Twisted-Pair||See Differential Signaling|