Glossary Terms and Definitions Beginning with the Letter L

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L-Band The group of radio frequencies extending from 390MHz to 1550MHz. The GPS carrier frequencies (1227.6MHz and 1575.42MHz) are in the L-band.
LAN Local Area Network: A computer network, usually within one building, that connects computers, file and mail servers, storage, peripherals, and other devices in a way that permits data interchange and sharing of resources. Ethernet and WiFi (802.11) are common examples.
LANs See LAN
Large-scale integration See LSI
Laser Diode Driver See Laser Driver
Laser Driver An IC that supplies modulated current to a laser diode in response to an input serial-data stream.
LC circuit See Resonant Circuit
LCC 1. Leadless Ceramic Chip Carrier or Leadless Chip Carrier: An IC package, usually ceramic, that has no leads (pins). It instead uses metal pads at its outer edge to make contact with the printed circuit board. Example: Maxim 20-pin LCC diagram (PDF)

2. Leaded Chip Carrier, also called PLCC or Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier: A square surface mount chip package in plastic with leads (pins) on all four sides. Example: Maxim 20-pin PLCC diagram (PDF)

LCD Liquid-crystal display
LDO Low Drop Out: A linear voltage regulator that will operate even when the input voltage barely exceeds the desired output voltage.
LDO Regulator Low Dropout Regulator See LDO
Leaded Chip Carrier See LCC
Leadless Chip Carrier See LCC
Leakage Inductance Leakage inductance in a transformer is an inductive component that results from the imperfect magnetic linking of one winding to another.

In an ideal transformer, 100% of the energy is magnetically coupled from the primary to the secondary windings. Imperfect coupling reduces the signal induced in the secondary windings. The electrical equivalent is some self-inductance in series with the primary windings that are properly coupled. This series inductance is the "leakage inductance."

LED Light-Emitting Diode: A semiconductor device that emits light (usually visible or infrared) when forward-biased.

The application note, "Driving LEDs in Battery-Operated Applications: Controlling Brightness Power Efficiently" has a good explanation of how LEDs work, especially with regard to current vs. LED brightness and schemes for matching brightness when driving multiple LEDs.

Level Translator A device which translates a logic signal from one type to another, for example, ECL to TTL.
LFSR Linear Feedback Shift Register: A shift register in which some of its outputs are connected to the input through some logic gates (typically, an exclusive-or (XOR). A wide variety of bit patterns can be generated inexpensively, including pseudo-random sequences. Can be used as a noise generator.

Some application notes that include an LFSR:

LGHL Low gain, high linearity
Li See Lithium batteries
Li+ See Lithium-ion batteries
Li-Ion See Lithium-ion batteries
Li-po See Lithium-ion batteries
Li-poly See Lithium-ion batteries
Light-Emitting Diode See LED
LIN Local Interconnect Network (LIN): Defined by the LIN-BUS consortium, a LIN is a low data-rate, single-wire communications system, used in automotive and heavy vehicle applications.
Line Regulation The ability of a power-supply voltage regulator to maintain its output voltage despite variations in its input voltage.
Linear 1. Having the property that the output is proportional to the input. E.g.:

  VOUT = k*VIN

where k is a constant.

2. Analog; as in a "linear" circuit (as opposed to digital).

Linear Amplifier See Class A
Linear Fan Control See Fan Controller - Linear
Linear Feedback Shift Register See LFSR
Linear Mode Uses a linear-pass element (BJT or FET) to control/regulate the charging voltage/current.
Linear Regulator A voltage regulator that is placed between a supply and the load and provides a constant voltage by varying its effective resistance.

See application note 660, "Regulator topologies for battery-powered systems."
Linear Taper See Taper
Lion See Lithium-ion batteries
Lipo See Lithium-ion batteries
Lithium See Lithium batteries
Lithium batteries Lithium batteries for low-power, high-reliability, long-life applications such as non-volatile memory and timekeeping (typically in coin-shaped cells) use a variety of lithium-based chemistries (as differentiated from lithium-ion).

Maxim NV SRAM and timekeeping products use mostly BR chemistry (poly-carbonmonofluoride) primary (non-rechargeable) lithium coin cells. We use CR chemistry (manganese dioxide) primary lithium coin cells in microcontroller and touch products. Some new products use "manganese lithium" (ML) chemistry, which is chemically close to the CR, but is a secondary (rechargeable) lithium coin cell.
Lithium Ion See Lithium-ion batteries
Lithium-Ion See Lithium-ion batteries
Lithium-ion batteries Lithium and lithium-ion: A number of battery chemistries are based on the element lithium, a highly-reactive metallic element. Lithium-based batteries are common in two applications: Power for portable equipment such as cell phones, laptops, and MP3 players; and low-power, long-life applications such as powering memory elements and clocks.

Lithium-ion (Li+, Li-Ion, Lion) cells are generally used as power sources for portable equipment. They are usually rechargeable. Lithium-ion and nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) have displaced nickel-cadmium (NiCd or nicad) as the dominant rechargeable chemistry for portable applications. Maxim makes a wide range of battery management products for all these families, including chargers, fuel gauges, and smart battery components.

Lithium batteries are typically coin-shaped and are used to power items such as Maxim's non-volatile static RAM (NV SRAM) and timekeeping circuits (such as real-time clocks).

Also see:

Lithium-ion polymer See Lithium-ion batteries
LL Local loopback
Lm Lumen(s)
Lm/W Lumen(s) per watt
LMDS Local Multipoint Distribution Service: A broadband radio service, located in the 28GHz and 31GHz bands, designed to provide two-way transmission of voice, high-speed data and video (wireless cable TV). In the U.S., FCC rules prohibit incumbent local exchange carriers and cable-TV companies from offering in-region LMDS.
LNA Low noise amplifier. Typical use: The first stage of a satellite receiver.
LO Local oscillator
Load Regulation Load regulation refers to circuitry that compensates for changes in load. Most commonly: Circuits that keep voltage constant as load varies.
Local Interconnect Network See LIN
Local Multipoint Distribution Service See LMDS
Local Temperature The temperature measured on the die of the temperature-measuring integrated circuit.
Local Temperature Sensor An element or function of an integrated circuit that measures its own die temperature.
Log Pot See Taper
Logarithmic Pot See Taper
Logarithmic Potentiometer See Taper
Logarithmic Taper See Taper
LOL Loss of lock
Long Haul A network that spans distances larger than a local area network (LAN). Because electrical and optical transmissions fade over distance, long-haul networks are difficult and expensive to implement.
Long Term Evolution LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a high-speed mobile communications cellular standard developed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). LTE is an evolution of GSM/UMTS standards.
Long-Haul See Long Haul
LOP Loss of power
LOS Loss of signal
Low Batt. Det. Low battery detector
Low Drop Out See LDO
Low Dropout See LDO
Low Dropout Linear Regulator See LDO
Low Frequency Gain Boost See Bass Boost
Low Line O/P Low line output
Low Noise Amplifier See LNA
Low Voltage Differential Signaling See LVDS
Low Voltage Emitter Coupled Logic See LVECL
Low Voltage Positive Emitter Coupled Logic See LVPECL
Low Voltage Transistor-Transistor Logic See LVTTL
Low-Side An element connected between the load and ground. Low-side current sensing applications measure current by looking at the voltage drop across a resistor placed between the load and ground.
LRC circuit See Resonant Circuit
LSB Least-significant bit. In a binary number, the LSB is the least weighted bit in the number. Typically, binary numbers are written with the MSB in the left-most position; the LSB is the furthest-right bit.
LSI Large-scale integration (LSI). See VLSI.
LTE See Long Term Evolution
Luminance 1. The emitted light, projected per unit area, measured in cd/m2 (candela per square meter). Often incorrectly equated with "brightness".

2. The black and white portion of a video signal, also referred to as the "Y" component. A composite, Y/C, or Y/Pb/Pr video signal combines a luminance signal with color components.

LVC Lowest voltage clamp
LVDS Low Voltage Differential Signaling
LVECL Low Voltage Emitter Coupled Logic
LVPECL Low Voltage Positive Emitter Coupled Logic
LVS Layout versus schematic
LVTTL Low Voltage Transistor-Transistor Logic