Passive Components Aren’t Really So Passive (Part 3): Printed Circuit Boards

Abstract: Active components like transistors and integrated circuits change signals using energy from the power supply. However, passive components like resistors, capacitors, inductors, and connectors actually can, and do, change the signal in unexpected ways. This happens because all these passive components contain parasitic components. This application note, the last in a 3-part series, discusses printed circuit boards and the errors that can occur because passive components aren't really so passive.