) are precision current-sense amplifiers (CSAs) and switches that provide phantom power to remote radio antennas in automotive applications. In addition, they provide short-circuit protection, current-limit protection, and open-load detection. To ensure that their antenna detection circuitry meets performance objectives, the design engineer must choose the correct external components for a design.
When working with CSAs and switches for antenna applications, the designer must often determine the operational windows for an open load, normal operation, a short circuit, and current limiting (Figure 2
). In addition, the accuracy of the CSA's analog output voltage must also be verified.
Figure 1. Typical operating circuit of the MAX16913A remote antenna CSA and switch.
Figure 2. Operation ranges for these CSAs.
This application note presents a calculator that shows how to determine the proper sense resistor and the resistor-divider for setting the open-load threshold (detection range) tolerance. It considers the tolerances of both the external components and the MAX16913/MAX16913A, and then calculates the appropriate tolerance window ranges for optimal performance. The calculator is available here
, and an example calculation follows.
Calculate the Required Sense Resistor
Ideally the maximum operating current develops the full-scale sense voltage across the current-sense resistor, RSENS
(Figure 1). Calculate the maximum value for RSENS
so that the differential voltage across IN and SENS does not exceed the minimum full-scale sense voltage (87mV)*:
= 87mV (min) at the maximum guaranteed output current, ILOAD(FULL-SCALE)
However, resistors always have tolerances, so the actual resistor value can be higher by its tolerance rating, thus causing the device to detect a short circuit too early. After considering the resistor's tolerance rating, the nominal maximum resistor value can be calculated:
is the maximum sense resistor calculated above, and RSENS-TOLERANCE
is the tolerance rating of the resistor. Remember that exact values for the calculated sense resistor may not be available. If that is the case, choose the closest smaller value for RSENS(MAX)(NOM)
and use that to calculate RSENS_P(NOM)
. Alternatively serial or parallel combinations of standard resistors can be used to attain the optimal sense resistor.
Calculate the Short-Circuit Current-Detection Window
The nominal sense resistor has been chosen. Now the typical current through the sense resistor, when a short circuit is detected, can be calculated as follows:
is the typical value of the short-circuit voltage threshold (100mV)* and RSENS_P(NOM)
is the sense resistor selected above.
However, as VSC
have uncorrelated tolerances (i.e., have minimum and maximum values that vary independently of each other), an additional error has to be considered. So the worst-case short-circuit, current-detection window is:
is the minimum value of the short-circuit voltage threshold (87mV)* and VSC(MAX)
is the maximum value (110mV).* Therefore:
||= RSENS_P(NOM) + its tolerance rating + RSENS_P(MIN)
||= RSENS_P(NOM) - its tolerance rating
The short-circuit flag (active-low SC) will thus go low when the current is in the range between ISC(MIN)
Calculate the Current-Limit Range
Analogous to the short-circuit current-detection window, the current-limit range is typically:
is the typical value of the current-limit threshold voltage between IN and SENS (200mV),* and RSENS_P(NOM)
is the sense resistor selected.
Considering that VLIM
have uncorrelated tolerances, the worst-case current-limit range through the sense resistor can be calculated:
is the minimum value of the voltage between IN and SENS (173mV),* and VLIM(MAX)
is the maximum value (225mV).*
Calculate the Open-Load Detection Window
This procedure differs for the MAX16913 and MAX16913A.
For the MAX16913
The open-load detection threshold (active-low OL) for the MAX16913 is set internally to VOLT
= 0.66V.* The associated current range using a 1Ω resistor is specified in the data sheet as 10mA (min), 20mA (typ), and 30mA (max). These values include the tolerance of the open-load comparator, the gain amplifier, and the external sense resistor (1Ω).
To determine the open-load detection window using a different sense resistor, first the given current levels must be converted to a voltage:
Then using the values calculated above, the typical value of the open-load current detection threshold calculates to:
is the typical value of the open-load detection-threshold voltage calculated above, and RSENS_P(NOM)
is the sense resistor selected.
Considering also the tolerances of the open-load current threshold and the tolerance of the sense resistor, then the current range for open-load detection calculates to:
are the minimum and maximum values of the open-load detection-threshold voltage; RSENS_P(MIN)
are the minimum and maximum values of the sense resistor calculated above.
The worst-case open-load detection window lies between IOL(MIN)
For the MAX16913A
The open-load threshold for the MAX16913A can be adjusted externally with a resistor-divider between REF, OLT, and GND. Therefore, the first task is to specify the external resistor-divider.
Specify the External Resistor-Divider
To begin, choose the voltage needed on the OLT pin to set the desired nominal OL threshold (at the OLT pin, Figure 1) using the following formula:
VOLT(V) = IOLT(A) × RSENS(Ω) × AV(V/V) + 0.133 × VREF
Where AV is the (VIN
) to VAOUT
gain (13V/V) and VREF
is the REF pin voltage (3V).* The ratio of the external resistors on the OLT pin can then be calculated using the following equation:
R2/R1 = VOLT/(VREF × (1 - VOLT/VREF))
is the voltage on the REF pin (3V). An arbitrary standard value can now be chosen for R1
, and the other resistor value can then be calculated (Figure 1). However, ensure that the impedance of the resistor-divider does not load the internal reference voltage excessively.
Determine the Open-Load Threshold-Voltage Range
The standard resistor values for R1 and R2 have now been defined. Next, considering the uncorrelated tolerances of VREF
and the resistors R1 and R2, the worst-case voltage range for the open-load pin, VOLTw
, can be calculated:
is the nominal value of R2
minus its tolerance value. This can be restated as R2(MIN)
[%]/100%)) and R1(MAX)
is the nominal value of R1
plus the tolerance.
Determine the Worst-Case, Open-Load Current-Detection Window
At this point VOLTw(MIN)
have been calculated. Now taking into consideration the tolerances of the REF output voltage, VREF
, the sense resistor, RSENS_P(NOM)
, and the gain, AV, the worst-case current window when open load is detected (active-low OL) can be calculated:
, and RSENS_P(MAX)
have been calculated above; AV
is the (VIN
) to VAOUT
gain which has minimum and maximum values of 12.87 and 13.13, respectively*; and VREF(MIN)
are the minimum and maximum values of the REF pin voltage (2.7V and 3.3V).*
Evaluate the Current Through RSENS by Measuring Voltage on AOUT
With a given sense resistor, RSENS
, and a defined current through it, ISENS
, then the worst-case range of voltage values measured at the current-sense amplifier's output, AOUT
(e.g., a microcontroller's analog-to-digital converter (ADC)), can now be calculated. Consider also the uncorrelated tolerances of AOUT_Z
and the sense resistor, RSENS
VAOUT(MIN)(V) = AOUT_Z(MIN)(V) + AV(MIN)(V/V) × RSENS(MIN)(Ω) × ISENS(A)
VAOUT(MAX)(V) = AOUT_Z(MAX)(V) + AV(MAX)(V/V) × RSENS(MAX)(Ω) × ISENS(A)
is 12.87V and AV(MAX)
is 13.13V;* and AOUT_Z(MIN)
are the minimum and maximum values of the AOUT
zero-current output voltage (340mV)* (460mV);* and RSENS(MIN)
are the sense resistor plus/minus its tolerance.
Stated in other words, the sensed current produces a worst-case AOUT
voltage variation between VAOUT(MIN)
Taking the above worst-case voltage levels and using a microcontroller's software to calculate those voltages back to a current, one can calculate:
have been calculated above; AV is the (VIN
) to VAOUT
gain (13V/V);* AOUT_Z(TYP)
is the typical value of the AOUT
zero-current output voltage (400mV);* and RSENS
is the nominal value of the sense resistor.
Thus when the analog output voltage is used to measure a certain current through the sense resistor, the microcontroller's ADC gives a current value between IEVALUATED(MIN)
The current measurement tolerance, ITOL
For these example calculations we assume an antenna phantom supply application where the upper end of the normal operation window (ILOAD(FULL-SCALE)
) is at 100mA. Then the maximum value of the sense resistor required is:
When using a resistor with a 1% tolerance, the maximum sense resistor that can be selected is:
As a 0.861Ω resistor is not available as a standard value, we select the next smaller value from the E96 series for RSENS-P(NOM)
= 0.845Ω. We use this value for our subsequent calculations.
Next, the typical current value for short-circuit detection can be calculated:
As previously shown, the minimum and maximum values for the short-circuit current-detection window lie between ISC(MIN)
. To calculate these values, we first need the minimum and maximum values of the selected sense resistor.
This allows us to derive the limits of the short-circuit current-detection window:
Analogous to the short-circuit current-detection window, the typical value of the current-limit range is:
Considering the tolerances, the minimum and maximum values for the current-limit range lie between ILIM(MIN)
Now for the MAX16913, the typical value for the open-load detection threshold is:
Including the tolerances, the minimum and maximum values are:
Turning now to the MAX16913A, we assume an application where the maximum current value of the open-load detection window is at 30mA. Therefore, the maximum voltage value for the center point of the resistor-divider is:
Next we pick a standard resistor for R2 from the E96 series, 90.9kΩ (1%), and calculate its maximum value:
The minimum resistor value for the upper resistor of the divider is then:
The nominal value, assuming also a 1% tolerance, is:
The closest higher standard value to be selected with the same tolerance is R1 = 392kΩ. Considering also its tolerance, we calculate:
And the minimum value for R2 is:
Continuing with these values, the open-load threshold-voltage range is:
Then the worst-case current window for the open-load detection of the MAX16913A is:
To evaluate the analog output, AOUT
, accuracy, we assume the same sense resistor selected above (0.845Ω) and evaluate the accuracy at a load current of 100mA. At this current, the minimum and maximum values of the AOUT
voltage are between:
VAOUT(MIN)(V) = AOUT_Z(MIN)(V) + AV(MIN)(V/V) × RSENS(MIN)(Ω) × ISENS(A) = 340mV + 12.87(V/V) × 0.837Ω × 100mA = 1.417V
VAOUT(MAX)(V) = AOUT_Z(MAX)(V) + AV(MAX)(V/V) × RSENS(MAX)(Ω) × ISENS(A) = 460mV + 13.13(V/V) × 0.853Ω × 100mA = 1.58V
Taking these voltages and calculating back as the microcontroller's software would do (i.e., taking the typical values from the data sheet), we derive an evaluated current between:
The worst-case tolerance of the measured current can then be up to:
*For more details on these calculations, see the data sheet for the MAX16913/MAX16913A.