SHA-1 battery-pack authentication IC provides a robust cryptographic solution for ensuring the authenticity of lithium-ion (Li+, Li-ion) battery packs in a variety of portable applications. This device utilizes the Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1) to authenticate a battery pack for a host system, such as a cell phone, PDA, or other portable computing device. Integrating the DS2703 in the battery pack allows the host to guard against unauthorized packs that could degrade system performance or even harm the user.
The DS2703 recognizes 11 function commands, and each one has a particular sequence that must be followed in order to properly execute the command. This application note provides a description of a complete transaction sequence, as well as a flowchart of all possible communication sequences for the DS2703.
The protocol for accessing the DS2703 through its 1-Wire® port is as follows:
- Net Address Command
- Function Command(s)
- Data Transfer (not all commands have data transfer)
All transactions through the 1-Wire bus begin with an initialization sequence that consists of a reset pulse transmitted by the bus master, followed by a presence pulse simultaneously transmitted by the DS2703 and any other slaves on the bus. The presence pulse tells the bus master that one or more devices are on the bus and ready to operate.
Net Address Commands
Once the bus master has detected the presence of one or more slaves, it can issue one of the net address commands: Read, Match, Search, or Skip. Figure 1
presents a transaction flowchart for each of the net address commands.
Figure 1. Net address commands flowchart for the DS2703.
Once the initialization and net address commands have been issued, the DS2703 is ready to receive a function command from the bus master. Table 1
contains a list of the 11 function commands recognized by the DS2703, as well as a brief description of the function of each command. Figure 2
then illustrates the flow required by the DS2703 to properly execute each command. Commands that require the same sequence from the master have been combined into a single branch on the flowchart.
Table 1. All Function Commands
Figure 2. A flowchart of function commands for the DS2703.
||Writes 64-bit challenge for SHA-1 processing; required prior to all Compute MAC and Compute Next Secret commands
|Compute MAC Without ROM_ID and Return MAC
||Computes hash of W0–W15 with logical 1's in place of the ROM_ID
|Compute MAC With ROM_ID and Return MAC
||Computes hash of W0–W15 with the ROM_ID
||Writes the 64-bit secret to supplied data; requires programming voltage on DQ
|Compute Next Secret Without ROM ID
||Generates new global secret; requires programming pulse
|Compute Next Secret With ROM ID
||Generates new unique secret; requires programming pulse
||Sets lock bit to prevent changes to the secret; requires programming pulse
||Sets 1-Wire interface timings to OVERDRIVE; requires programming pulse
||Sets 1-Wire interface timings to STANDARD; requires programming pulse
||Activates the THM output for thermistor measurement; activation occurs within 50µs of command completion and continues until the VB capacitor is discharged
||Resets the DS2703 (software POR)
The DS2703 requires a specific sequence, which must be executed under certain timing constraints, in order to properly execute the function commands. This application note has detailed the complete transaction sequence and presented a flowchart for all possible communication sequences.