Regulated LCD-Bias Generator Requires No Inductor
A stringent height limitation on the PC boards for personal digital assistants (PDAs) and palmtop computers compels the use of expensive, low-profile inductors in switch-mode power supplies. As an alternative, however, certain switch-mode circuits can be replaced with one based on a charge pump (Figure 1). This example generates a regulated negative voltage suitable for biasing an LCD.
Figure 1. Adding a few inexpensive components in the feedback path of IC1 enables the generation of regulated output voltages nearly as high as -4VIN.
IC1 contains a regulated, inverting charge pump that produces output voltages as high as -2VIN, in which the supply voltage (VIN) can range from +1.8V to +5.5V. The IC regulates VOUT through pulse-frequency modulation (PFM), with a maximum frequency of 450kHz. The IC's low quiescent current (30µA) provides excellent light-load efficiency without sacrificing full-load capability.
Inserting an external, discrete charge pump (consisting of C3, C4, and the Schottky diodes) in the feedback path of IC1 produces an "inverter-quadrupler" circuit whose regulated output level is set by the ratio of feedback resistors R1 and R2:
VOUT = -VIN (R1/R2)
Configured as shown, the circuit provides up to 15mA at VOUT = -18V, with 76% efficiency and 60mV of output voltage ripple. Lower VOUT allows higher output currents: VOUT = -15V yields 20mA, and VOUT = -12V yields 30mA.