Temperature Sensing

Description

There is a very wide range of temperature sensing and control applications in the world today and hence many design alternatives. This solution offers in-depth design information and circuits for building thermal sensing signal chains using the most popular thermal sensors.

Usually the first step in designing a thermal sensing and control system is to determine the temperature range that must be sensed as well as the operating environment. The next step is selecting a thermal sensor. There are four main type of thermal sensors: silicon, thermistor, RTD, and thermocouple. Maxim provides either complete signal chain solutions or integrated ICs that can take the thermal transducer signal, process it, and provide either an analog or digital communication path back to the control device.

Click the design considerations tab to gain an understanding of the key parameters and circuitry needed to build a temperature sensing function. Click the "circuits" or "block diagrams" tab to view reference designs and products suggested for use in various temperature sensing applications.


The first step in designing a temperature sensor circuit is to select the temperature transducer that you are going to use. To do this, you need to know the medium you are measuring (air, water, liquid, solid) and the temperature range that you are measuring. Then you need to know the accuracy of the measurements that you need to make over the measurement range.

Popular thermal transducers include:

  • Thermocouple (range of -180°C to +1300°C)
  • RTD (range -200°C to +900°C)
  • Thermistor (range: -50°C to +150°C)
  • Silicon Sensor (range -20°C to +100°C)

While the range of the sensor that you select must meet that of your application, additional selection criteria generally includes mounting options and cost of both the sensor and the supporting signal chain.

After the transducer is selected, the next step is determining how to extract a usable signal from the transducer and deliver that signal to a controller. The signal extraction circuitry is called the signal chain. For each transducer there are signal chain alternatives, including single chip solutions. Factors in selecting which signal chain to use include accuracy, flexibility, ease of design, and cost.

This page presents some essential design considerations for different popular temperature transducer types.

Thermocouples


Thermocouples are made by joining two wires of dissimilar metals. The point of contact between the wires generates a voltage that is approximately proportional to temperature. Characteristics include wide temperature range (up to +1800°C), low-cost (depending on package), very low output voltage (about 40µV per °C for a K type), reasonable linearity, and moderately complex signal conditioning. Thermocouples require a 2nd temperature sensor (cold-junction compensation) that serves as a temperature reference and signal conditioning requires a look-up table or algorithm correction.

This table shows the output voltage vs. temperature for popular thermocouple types:

Type Temperature Range (°C) Nominal Sensitivity ( µV/°C)
K −180 to +1300 41
J −180 to +800 55
N −270 to +1300 39

The curve below (Figure 1) shows voltage output over temperature range. The curve is reasonably linear, although it clearly has significant deviations from absolute linearity.

Figure 1. Type K thermocouple output voltage vs. temperature.
Figure 1. Type K thermocouple output voltage vs. temperature.

The diagram below shows the deviation from a straight-line approximation, assuming a linear output from 0°C to +1000°C for an average sensitivity of 41.28µV/°C. To improve accuracy, linearity correction can be done by calculating the actual value or by using a lookup table.

Figure 2. Type K thermocouple deviation from a straight-line approximation.
Figure 2. Type K thermocouple deviation from a straight-line approximation.

Measuring temperature with a thermocouple can be challenging if the temperature range is narrow because the output of the thermocouple is so low. It is also complicated because additional thermocouples are created at the point where the thermocouple wires make contact with the copper wires (or traces) that connect to the signal conditioning circuitry. This point is called the cold junction (see Figure 3).

Figure 3. Simple thermocouple circuit.
Figure 3. Simple thermocouple circuit.

A complete thermocouple-to-digital circuit is shown in Figure 4. A precision op amp and precision resistors provide gain to the thermocouple output signal. A temperature sensor at the cold junction location is monitored to correct for cold junction temperature, and an ADC provides output data at the resolution required. In general, calibration is necessary to correct for amplifier offset voltage, as well as resistor, temperature sensor, and voltage reference errors, and linearization must be performed to correct for the effect of the thermocouple's nonlinear temperature-voltage relationship.

Figure 4. Example of a thermocouple signal-conditioning circuit.
Figure 4. Example of a thermocouple signal-conditioning circuit.

Maxim manufactures a dedicated single chip thermocouple interface that performs the signal conditioning functions for a variety of thermocouple types, thus simplifying the design task and significantly reducing the number of components required to amplify, cold-junction compensate, and digitize the thermocouple's output. The IC is listed under the circuits tab.

Maxim Thermocouple Solutions

Maxim offers both single chip and discrete signal chain alternatives for use with thermocouple sensors. Maxim's single chip Thermocouple-to-Digital interface IC is the MAX31855.

Click on the circuits library tab to view IC solutions and the block diagrams tab for further circuit examples. Additional design information is available in the application notes listed under "Tech Docs."

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Resistance temperature detectors - RTDs


RTDs are essentially resistors whose resistance varies with temperature. Characteristics include a wide temperature range (up to 800°C), excellent accuracy and repeatability, reasonable linearity, and the need for signal conditioning. Signal conditioning for an RTD usually consists of a precision current source and a high-resolution ADC. While RTD are fairly standardized their cost can be high depending on the base material. Platinum is the most common RTD material and Platinum RTDs, referred to as PT-RTDs are the most accurate, other RTD materials include Nickel, Copper, and Tungsten (rare). RTDs are available in probes, in surface-mount packages, and with bare leads.

One factor in determining the useful range of the RTD is the RTD package. The RTD can be made by depositing platinum onto a ceramic substrate or using a platinum wire element housed in a package. The difference in expansion rate of the substrate or package versus the platinum element can cause additional error.

For PT-RTDs, the most common values for nominal resistance at 0°C are 100Ω (PT100), 500Ω(PT500) and 1kΩ (PT1000), although other values are available. The average slope between 0°C and +100°C is called alpha (α). This value depends on the impurities and their concentrations in the platinum. The two most widely used values for alpha are 0.00385 and 0.00392, corresponding to the IEC 751 (PT100) and SAMA standards.

The resistance vs. temperature curve is reasonably linear, but has some curvature, as described by the Callendar-Van Dusen equation:

R(T) = R0(1 + aT + bT2 + c(T - 100)T3)

More information about this equation can be found in the Maxim Thermal Handbook.

The diagram below, Figure 5, shows the curve of resistance vs. temperature for a PT100 RTD along with a straight-line approximation using α. Note that the straight-line approximation is accurate to better than ±0.4°C from -20°C to +120°C.


Figure 5. PT100 RTD resistance vs. temperature. Also shown is the straight-line approximation for 0°C to +100°C.

Figure 6, below, shows the error (in degrees) between the actual resistance and the value calculated from the straight-line approximation:


Figure 6. PT100 nonlinearity compared to linear approximation based on the slope from 0°C to +100°C.

Signal conditioning for a simple 2-wire RTD usually consists of a precision resistor (reference resistor) connected in series with the RTD. A current source that forces current through the RTD and the precision reference resistor, and across the inputs of a high-resolution ADC. The voltage across the reference resistor is the reference voltage for the ADC. The ADC's conversion result is simply the ratio of the RTD's resistance to the reference resistance. An example of a simple RTD signal-conditioning circuit is shown in Figure 7.

Several variations are common. The current source may be integrated into the ADC, or the current source may be eliminated and a voltage source may be used to provide bias to the RTD-RREF divider. This approach is not as common as providing a current supply because the voltage supply provides accurate results only when the wires connecting the RTD to circuit have very low resistance.

Figure 7. Simplified RTD signal-conditioning circuit.
Figure 7. Simplified RTD signal-conditioning circuit.

3-Wire or 4-Wire RTD Interface

When the RTD's cable resistance is significant (greater than a few mΩ for a PT100), a 3-wire or 4-wire RTD will generally be used. Four wires allow force and sense connections to the RTD to eliminate the effect of wire resistance. Three wires provide a compromise solution that partially cancels the effect of cable resistance. Linearization is generally done using a lookup table, although external linear circuits can provide good linearization over a limited temperature range.

To measure the resistance of an RTD, a small electric current (about 1 mA) must flow through the sensor to create the necessary voltage drop. The current causes the platinum element in the RTD to heat up above the temperature of the RTD's environment (also called Joule heating). The heating is proportional to the electric power (P=I2R) in the RTD and the heat transfer between the RTD sensing element and the RTD environment.

The most common standards for RTD tolerances are the American standard (ASTM E1137) Grades A and B and European standard IEC 751 Class A or B.

ASTM E1137 IEC 60751 (2008)
Grade Tolerance Class Tolerance
A ±(0.13 + 0.0017 |t|)  A (Class F0.15) ±(0.15 + 0.002 |t|) 
B ±(0.25 + 0.0042 |t|)  B (Class F0.3) ±(0.3 + 0.005 |t|)

Where |t| is the absolute value of temperature in °C

Maxim RTD Solutions

Maxim offers both single chip and discrete signal chain alternatives for use with RTD sensors. Maxim's single chip RTC-to-Digital interface is the MAX31865.

Click on the circuits library tab to view IC solutions and the block diagrams tab for circuit examples. Additional design information is available in the application notes listed under "Tech Docs."

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Thermistor


Thermistors are temperature-dependent resistors, usually made from conductive materials such as metal-oxide ceramics or polymers. The most common thermistors used for temperature sensing have a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) of resistance. Thermistors are available in probes, in surface-mount packages, with bare leads, and in a variety of specialized packages.

Characteristics include moderate temperature range (generally up to +150°C, though some are capable of much higher temperatures), low-to-moderate cost (depending on accuracy), poor but repeatable linearity. The linearity of a thermistor varies significantly over temperature. Over a range of 0° to 70°C thermistor non-linearity can be ±2°C to ±2.5°C while over a range 10° to 40°C typical non-linearity can be ±0.2°C.

A simple, common approach to using a thermistor is to use a voltage divider as shown in Figure 8, where a thermistor and fixed-value resistor form a voltage divider whose output is digitized by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC).

Figure 8. This basic circuit shows how a thermistor can interface to an ADC. Resistor R1 and the thermistor form a voltage divider with a temperature-dependent output voltage.
Figure 8. This basic circuit shows how a thermistor can interface to an ADC. Resistor R1 and the thermistor form a voltage divider with a temperature-dependent output voltage.

NTC thermistors have a large negative temperature coefficient over wide temperature ranges. The relationship between resistance and temperature for a common NTC is shown in Figure 9. This is an issue for both linear and logarithmic correction over wide temperature ranges.


Figure 9. Resistance vs. temperature curves for a standard NTC. Nominal resistance is 10kΩ at +25°C. Note the nonlinearity and large relative temperature coefficient of curve (a). Curve (b) is based on a logarithmic scale and also exhibits significant nonlinearity.

An NTC's nonlinearity over a wide temperature range can affect the choice of the ADC selected to digitize the temperature signal. Since the slope of the curves in Figure 9 decreases significantly at temperature extremes, the effective temperature resolution of any ADC used with the NTC thermistor is limited at those extremes and this often requires the use of a higher resolution ADC.

Combining an NTC with a fixed resistor in a voltage-divider circuit like the one in Figure 8 provides some linearization, as shown in Figure 10. By selecting an appropriate value for the fixed resistor, the temperature range for which the curve is most linear can be shifted to meet the needs of the application.


Figure 10. Making an NTC voltage-divider, as in Figure 9, helps to linearize the NTC's resistance curve over a limited temperature range. The voltages on the NTC and the external resistor, R1, are shown as a function of temperature. Note that the voltage is roughly linear from 0°C to +70°C.

For wide temperature range applications a common approach is to use the Steinhart–Hart equation. This provides a third order approximation. The error in the Steinhart–Hart equation is generally less than 0.02⁰C over a measurement range of 200°C range.

More information about Steinhart-Hart equation can be found in the Maxim Thermal Handbook.

Maxim Thermistor Solutions

Maxim manufactures a few different single chip thermistor based digital output ICs. While the MAX31865 was designed for use with RTDs, it is also a very good choice for use with a thermistor.

Click on the circuits library tab to view IC solutions and the block diagrams tab for circuit examples. Additional design information is available in the application notes listed under "Tech Docs."

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Silicon


Silicon temperature sensors are available with analog or digital outputs. While the range of a silicon sensor is limited, they are easy to use and many have additional features like thermostat functions.

Analog Temp Sensors

An analog temperature sensor is useful in applications where the output needs to be sent through a current loop to a monitoring device. Digital outputs can also be converted in this case, but then the signal goes through two extra conversion steps.

Analog temperature sensor ICs use the thermal characteristics of bipolar transistors to develop an output voltage or, in some cases, current, that is proportional to temperature.

The simplest analog temperature sensors have just three active connections: ground; power supply voltage input; and output. Other analog sensors with enhanced features may have additional inputs or outputs such as a comparator or voltage reference output.

Figure 11 shows a curve of output voltage vs. temperature for a typical analog temperature sensor, the MAX6605. Figure 12 shows the deviation from a straight line for this sensor. From 0°C to +85°C, the linearity is within about ±0.2°C, which is quite good compared to thermistors, RTDs, and thermocouples.

Figure 11. Output voltage vs. temperature for the MAX6605 analog temperature-sensor IC.
Figure 11. Output voltage vs. temperature for the MAX6605 analog temperature-sensor IC.


Figure12. The MAX6605 output voltage deviation from a straight line. Linearity from 0°C to +85°C is approximately ±0.2°C.

Analog temperature sensors can have excellent accuracy. For example, the DS600 has a guaranteed accuracy of ±0.5°C from -20°C to +100°C. Other analog sensors are available with larger error tolerances, but many of these have very low operating current (on the order of 15µA, max) and are available in small packages (e.g., SC70).

Digital Temperature Sensors

Integrating an analog temperature sensor with an ADC is an easy way to create a temperature sensor with a direct digital interface. Such a device is normally called a digital temperature sensor, or a local digital temperature sensor. "Local" refers to the fact that the sensor measures its own temperature, as opposed to a remote sensor that measures the temperature of an external IC or discrete transistor.

Figure 13 shows block diagrams for two digital temperature sensors. Figure 13a illustrates a sensor that simply measures temperature and clocks the resulting data out through a 3-wire digital interface. Figure 13b shows a sensor that includes several additional features, such as over-/under temperature outputs, registers to set trip thresholds for these outputs, and EEPROM.


Figure 13. Block diagrams of local digital temperature sensors. (a) Simple sensor with serial digital output. (b) Sensor with additional functions, such as over-/under temperature alarm outputs and user EEPROM.

One advantage of using a digital temperature sensor is that all of the errors involved in digitizing the temperature value are included within the sensor's accuracy specifications. In contrast, an analog temperature sensor's specified error must be added to that of any ADC, amplifier, voltage reference, or other component that is used with the sensor. A good example of a very high-performance digital temperature sensor is the MAX31725, which achieves ±0.5°C accuracy across a temperature range of -40°C to +105°C. The MAX31725 can be used over a range of -55°C to +125°C temperature range and provides a maximum temperature error of just ±0.7°C with a 16-bit (0.00390625°C) resolution.

Most digital temperature sensors include one or more outputs that indicate that the measured temperature has gone beyond a preset (usually software-programmable) limit. The output may behave like a comparator output, with one state when temperature is above the threshold and the other state when temperature is below the threshold. Another common implementation is for the output to behave as an interrupt that is reset only in response to an action by the master.

Digital temperature sensors are available with a wide variety of digital interfaces including I2C, SMBus™, SPI™, 1-Wire®, and PWM.

Maxim Analog and Digital Silicon-Based Temperature Solutions

Maxim offers a variety of silicon-based temperature sensors with analog or digital output.

Click on the circuits library tab to view IC solutions and the block diagrams tab for circuit examples. Additional design information is available in the application notes listed under "Tech Docs."

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300MHz–960MHz (G)FSK Transmitter with I2C Interface

MAX41464

Includes Bits-to-RF single-wire MCU for low-cost implementation, up to +16dBm output power to increase short-range transmissions.

Learn More ›

Low-Power DOCSIS 3.1 Programmable-Gain Amplifier

MAX3523

Passes stringent DOCSIS 3.1 specifications. Low 3.5W power dissipation surpasses cable modem/gateway requirements.

Learn More ›

Frequency Synthesizer Shield

MAXREFDES161

Frequency synthesizer generates 23.5MHz to 6GHz microwave radio signals. Level translators connect to +3.3V and +5V microcontrollers.

Learn more ›

Evaluation Kit for Multiband Universal GNSS Receivers

MAX2771EVKIT

Provides multi-constellation/multi-band support with superior RF performance for the highest position accuracy.

Learn More ›

Evaluation Kit for Universal GNSS Receivers

MAX2769CEVKIT

Fully programmable, supports GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo systems in a single chip.

Learn More ›

Frequency Synthesizer Shield

MAXREFDES161

Frequency synthesizer generates 23.5MHz to 6GHz microwave radio signals. Level translators connect to +3.3V and +5V microcontrollers.

Learn more ›

Evaluation Kit for Multiband Universal GNSS Receivers

MAX2771EVKIT

Provides multi-constellation/multi-band support with superior RF performance for the highest position accuracy.

Learn More ›

Evaluation Kit for Universal GNSS Receivers

MAX2769CEVKIT

Fully programmable, supports GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo systems in a single chip.

Learn More ›

LiDAR system

Diagram of LiDAR system with the TIA and COMP optical receiver system.

MAX40660 and MAX40661 transimpedance amplifiers block diagram

Diagram of MAX40660/MAX40661 transimpedance amplifiers (TIA1 and TIA2) for automotive LiDAR.

MAX40025 and MAX40026 high-speed comparators

MAX40025 and MAX40026 stabilize the TIA optical signal in LiDAR applications.

Ultra-High CMTI Isolated Gate Driver

MAX22701E

Features single-ended input with Miller clamp output.

Learn more ›

How to Design a Negative Voltage Reference Using MAX828

Katie explains the purpose of a stable voltage reference and describes three common methods used to create one. Next, she shows how the MAX828 can be used to quickly and easily create a small, efficient negative voltage reference for applications which use a bipolar supply.

Learn more: MAX828 ›

Bluetooth Low Energy: Developing an Application—Part 7 of 7

Nobody writes programs for Bluetooth® Low Energy (BLE) from scratch. In the final video of this series, a sample fitness tracking application is used to explain the concept of an API (Applications Programming Interface).

Learn more: MAX32666EVKIT ›

Fan motor efficiency and power factor for 38–50W shaded-pole motor and PMSM motors

Fan motor efficiency and power factor for 38–50W shaded-pole motor and PMSM motors. Image courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Fan motor efficiency and power factor for 38–50W ECM and PMSM motors

Fan motor efficiency and power factor for 38–50W ECM and PMSM motors.

11.5A, 900V silicon carbide power MOSFET from Wolfspeed

An 11.5A, 900V silicon carbide power MOSFET from Wolfspeed. Image courtesy of Wolfspeed, a Cree company.

A standard AC induction motor

Compact Development Board for Secure IoT Applications

MAX32520-KIT

Cortex®-M4 secure microcontroller provides secure boot and protection against physical tampering for IoT applications.

Learn more ›

Introduction to the MAXM17712 MAXM17720 and MAXM17724 Integrated 4V-60V, 150mA, Himalaya uSLIC Step-Down Power Module with 50mA Linear Regulator

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's Integrated 4V-60V, 150mA, Himalaya uSLIC Step-Down Power Module with 50mA Linear Regulator - the MAXM17712 MAXM17720 and MAXM17724

EE-Sim DC-DC Tool Overview

See a demonstration of the most commonly used functionality in EE-Sim. Includes opening a new DC-DC design, changing design requirements, creating a schematic, running simulations, comparing designs, and generating a report.

Learn more: EE-Sim Design and Simulation Tool ›

EE-Sim Design Requirements

How to set the Design Requirement specifications and create a schematic.

Learn more: EE-Sim Design and Simulation Tool ›

EE-Sim Working with Components

Review the manufacturer, part number, and key properties for each recommended component in your schematic. Select a different component, or define your own component. How ceramic capacitor performance is derated, and why that is important.

Learn more: EE-Sim Design and Simulation Tool ›

EE-Sim Simulation

Use the Simulation Setup Window to run up to six simulation types. If desired, customize a variety of simulation settings. Places to access the resulting waveforms.

Learn more: EE-Sim Design and Simulation Tool ›

EE-Sim Design Tradeoffs

Prioritize the design size, efficiency, or BOM cost based on your design needs. Learn how this selection is implemented in your schematic.

Learn more: EE-Sim Design and Simulation Tool ›

NFC/RFID Tags and Readers

Fundamentals of NFC/RFID Communications

What’s the difference between NFC and RFID? Learn about the technology behind near field communication (NFC) and radio frequency identification (RFID) and the unique application characteristics of each. See how NFC and RFID ICs use modulation and demodulation processes, and through electromagnetic waves, move from the transmitter or tag to the receiver or reader.

Learn more › NFC/RFID Tags and Readers

Enabling High-Performance Automotive Infotainment

 

"MAX9286 is highly integrated and can support up to four camera links. This compact integration takes up less space on the mainboard and also reduces the bill of materials cost for customers.”
-JC Hsu, Corporate Vice President, MediaTek


Featured products: MAX9286, MAX96705, MAX15007C, MAX8902B

Read Their Story ›

Introduction to the MAX14828 Low-Power, Ultra-Small IO-Link Device Transceiver

This video provides an introduction to the MAX14828, a Single 250mA IO-Link Transceiver + DI.

Redefining Motion Capture

 

"Maxim ICs are making our products work in a more stable and reliable manner.”
-Dr. Tristan RuoLi Dai, CTO, Noitom


Featured products: MAX17224, MAX14841E, MAX809S, MAX14527, MAX8887, DS3231M, MAX8881

Read Their Story ›

Making Clothes Smarter

 

“Maxim support enabled us to use these parts effectively, and we created a design that is more or less without compromise.”
 -Dylan Jackson, Lead Embedded Engineer, Spire


Featured products: MAX30110 and MAX17223

Read Their Story ›

Dual-Channel, Synchronous Buck High-Brightness LED Controller with SPI Interface

MAX20096

Ultra-fast transient response with near-fixed frequency minimizes EMI for matrix lighting, wide dimming ratio allows high contrast.

Learn more ›

2A Synchronous Buck LED Driver with Integrated MOSFETs

MAX20050

High-performance, compact, and efficient buck LED driver simplifies automotive and general lighting designs.

Learn more ›

Automotive High-Voltage, High-Brightness LED Controller

MAX20090

Single-channel HB LED driver for front-light applications such as high-beam, low-beam, and daytime running lights.

Learn more ›

12-Switch Matrix Manager for Automotive Lighting

MAX20092

Single/dual/quad-string configurations, programmable 12-bit PWM dimming, enables matrix/pixel lighting up to 1.5A

Learn more ›

Synchronous Buck, High-Brightness LED Controller

MAX20078

Industry's First Automotive Buck Controller with Ultra-Fast Response and Pseudo Fixed-Frequency Regulation

Learn more ›

60V, 1A, Automotive Synchronous Step-Down DC-DC Converter

MAX20058

60V Synchronous Buck Converter with Internal FETs Enables High Efficiency and Low Temperature Rise

Learn more ›

36V, 2.5MHz Automotive Boost/SEPIC Controllers

MAX16990

2.5MHz Automotive PWM Controller Enables Space-Efficient Preboost Supplies for Cold/Warm Crank Applications

Learn more ›

High-Voltage, 3-Channel Linear High-Brightness LED Driver with Open LED Detection

MAX16823

Highly Integrated, High-Voltage LED Driver Ideal for Automotive Applications

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Introduction to the MAX17662 3.5V to 36V, 2A, High-Efficiency, Synchronous Step-Down DC-DC Converter

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's 3.5V to 36V, 2A, High-Efficiency, Synchronous Step-Down DC-DC Converter - the MAX17662.

MAX77654 block diagram

MAX77654 SIMO PMIC diagram of location-tracking chips IoT devices like e-bikes and e-scooters

E-scooter

Location Tracking Chips Design Enabling e-Scooter Navigation

Understanding Power Losses in Buck Converters

Anthony examines the large power losses associated with the rectification diode of a traditional buck converter. He then shows how a synchronous buck converter, like the MAX17506 or MAX17503, can significantly improve efficiency, thermal performance, and reliability by replacing the diode with an integrated MOSFET.

Learn More > Himalaya Buck Converters

Transimpedance Amplifier with 100mA Input Current Clamp for Automotive LiDAR

MAX40660

Small 3x3 TDFN with wide 490MHz bandwidth captures road condition detail and low 2.1pA/√Hz noise density reduces signal distortion and misinterpretation.

Learn more ›

How to Use DC-Biasing Configurations to Extend the Operating Voltage Range of a Flyback Converter

Teja considers the advantages and disadvantages of three commonly used DC biasing configurations that allow a flyback converter to operate above its absolute maximum voltage rating. He explains why transformer auxiliary winding is the best option, before using the MAXREFDES1193 to calculate the efficiency of this configuration.

Learn more: MAXREFDES1193 ›

Simplify System Power Designs and Achieve Bigger, Sharper Automotive Displays

Maxim's automotive-grade power ICs enable a wide range of display capabilities, helping you implement solutions to support higher luminance, higher current, and increased channel, making it easier to design bigger, sharper automotive displays. Our automotive display ICs also meet ASIL-B and high power requirements for greater reliability.

Learn more: Automotive Display Power ›

Michael Kratsios, U.S. Chief Technology Officer

U.S. Chief Technology Officer Michael Kratsios discusses AI leadership at CES

Elaine Chao, U.S. Secretary of Transportation

Elaine Chao announced AV 4.0, the U.S. initiative on autonomous vehicles, at CES 2020.

5G Technology

5G technology promises to bring the IoT to more people.

Driverless Taxi

Hyundai and Uber are teaming up to bring a driverless taxi to the market.

How to Fix a Corrupted EEPROM on an SC1905EVKIT or SC1894EVKIT

Samantha shows how to identify if your SC1905EVKIT or SC1894EVKIT has a corrupted EEPROM by measuring the supply current or by running the GUI. She then shows some simple fixes to restore your EV kit if this is the case.

Learn more: SC1905 ›

Beacon Current Profile

Typical Beacon Block Diagram

Bluetooth Beacons in the Smart Factory

Tutorial: All About Frequency Synthesis

Learn how variable frequency synthesis is achieved with the phase-locked loop (PLL). This video covers PLL theory and design including the phase detector, loop filter, voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), integer dividers/multipliers, and the benefits of fractional division. Resources for finding integrated frequency synthesizer ICs are provided.

Learn More › PLLS and VCOs

USB to 1-Wire adapter

DS9481R-3C7

With the OneWireViewer PC utility, easily exercise and evaluate 1-Wire devices.

Learn more ›

Evaluation kit for the DS9090EVKIT

DS9090EVKIT

With the OneWireViewer PC utility, exercise and evaluate a broad range of 1-Wire devices.

Learn more ›

MAX17301/11 functional diagram

Pack-side fuel-gauge implementation

Host-side fuel-gauge implementation

1-Wire Technology Overview - Part 2

In “1-Wire Technology Overview - Part 1," you learned about the 1-Wire® protocol. In part 2, learn how the 1-Wire communication protocol can be used in authentication, memory, and temperature sensing applications.

Learn more: 1-Wire ›

1-Wire Technology Overview - Part 1

Learn how the 1-Wire® communication protocol works, its advantages over other types of serial communication, common implementation configurations, and popular 1-Wire applications. In the next video, “1-Wire Technology Overview - Part 2,” you’ll learn how the 1-Wire protocol is used in applications.

Learn more: 1-Wire ›

Introduction to the MAX77504 14Vin 3A High Efficiency Buck Converter

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's 14Vin 3A High-Efficiency Buck Converter - the MAX77504.

Introduction to the MAX77501 110VPK-PK High Efficiency Piezo Haptic Actuator Boost Driver

This video provides an introduction to Maxim’s first high voltage high efficiency piezo haptic driver – the MAX77501.

Introduction to the MAX20412 Automotive Low-Voltage 2-Channel Step-Down Controller

This video provides an introduction to the MAX20412, a dual-output, high-efficiency synchronous step-down controller IC that operates with a 3.0V to 5.5V input voltage range and provides a 0.25V to 1.275V output voltage range.

Introduction to the MAX14813 Ultra-Compact Octal 3L/Quad 5L Pulser with T/R Switches and Beamforming Capability

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's Ultra-Compact Octal 3L/Quad 5L Pulser with T/R Switches and Beamforming Capability - the MAX14813.

Evaluation Platform for Wrist-Based Heart-Rate and SpO2 Monitoring

MAXREFDES103#: Health Sensor Band

Demonstrates the high sensitivity and algorithm processing functions of health-sensing applications.

Learn more ›

3.5V to 36V Ideal Diode Controllers with Voltage and Current Circuit Breaker

MAX16141/MAX16141A

Mitigates high-voltage transient spikes, fast (0.3µs typ) shutdown response prevents reverse currents, and 5μA (typ) shutdown current reduces battery drain.

Learn more ›

280ps High-Speed Comparator, Ultra-Low Dispersion with LVDS Outputs

MAX40026

10ps overdrive delay at 20mV to 100mV output drive (dispersion) for 0.018cm time-of-flight measurement error in 2mm x 2mm TDFN.

Learn more ›

Introduction to the MAX25249 MAX25249B Quad Output Mini PMIC for Automotive Camera Applications

This video provides an introduction to Maxim’s Flexible Mini Dual 2.2MHz, 500mA Buck Converter with LDOs for Automotive Camera Supplies – the MAX25249 and MAX25249B

Introduction to the MAX98360A MAX98360B MAX98360C MAX98360D Tiny, Cost-Effective, Plug and Play Digital Class-D Amplifier

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's Tiny, Cost-Effective, Plug and Play Digital Class-D Amplifier - the MAX98360A MAX98360B MAX98360C MAX98360D

Meeting Food Quality Criteria

 

"For our purpose, the iButton is the perfect choice because it’s so small, robust, and can be reused many times.”
 -Dr. Thijs Defraeye, Laboratory for Biomimetic Membranes and Textiles, Empa


Featured product: DS1922L

Read Their Story ›

Introduction to the MAX20340 Bidirectional DC Powerline Communication Management IC

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's Bidirectional DC Powerline Communication Management IC - the MAX20340.

How to Measure Current with the MAX4173 Current-Sense Amplifier and a Microcontroller

In this video, Sean uses the MAX4173 Evaluation Kit together with an Arduino® Uno to measure current. He also discusses the principle behind measuring current and why a current-sense amplifier is a very useful addition to this technique.

Learn more › MAX4173

Ultra-Low Power Octal, Digital Input Translator/Serializer

MAX31910

Translates, conditions, and serializes digital output of industrial sensors and switches.

Learn more ›

Octal, High-Speed, Industrial, High-Side Switch

MAX14900E

Fast 24V driver, low propagation delay, and 100kHz load-switching speed for high-speed PLCs.

Learn more ›

Introduction to the MAX20057 MAX20457 MAX20458 36V Boost Controller with Two Synchronous Buck Converters (3.5A/2A) for Automotive Applications

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's Synchronous Buck Converters for Automotive Applications.

Introduction to the MAX40056F/T/U Bidirectional Current Sense Amplifier with PWM-Rejection

This video provides an introduction to the MAX40056, a bi-directional current-sense amplifier with an input common-mode range that extends from -0.1Vto +65V together with protection against negative inductive kickback voltages to -5V.

Introduction to the MAX17673 Integrated 4.5V to 60V Synchronous 1.5A High Voltage Buck and Dual 2.7V to 5.5V, 1A Buck Regulators

This video provides an introduction to the MAX17673, an integrated 4.5V to 60V Synchronous 1.5A High Voltage Buck and Dual 2.7V to 5.5V, 1A Buck Regulators.

How to Set Up a SerDes Reverse Control Channel When PCLK is Not Available - Using the MAX96705/MAX96706 GMSL SerDes

Learn how to establish the I2C reverse control channel when PCLK is not available using the MAX96705 Gigabit Multimedia Serial Link (GMSL) serializer and MAX96706 GMSL deserializer.

Also see: How do I program the remote side of a SerDes link when PCLK is not present?

Learn more: MAX96705 16-Bit GMSL Serializer ›

Learn more: MAX96706 14-Bit GMSL Deserializer ›

Automotive displays

Bigger, sharper automotive displays benefit from highly integrated power management ICs.

MAXREFDES103#

The MAXREFDES103# is a full wrist-worn wearable reference design for heart-rate, heart-rate variability, and SpO2 measurements.

Introduction to the MAX17634A, MAX17634B and MAX17634C 4.5V to 36V, 4.25A, High-Efficiency, Synchronous Step-Down DC-DC Converter

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's 4.5V to 36V, 4.25A, High-Efficiency, Synchronous Step-Down DC-DC Converter - the MAX17634A, MAX17634B and MAX17634C.

Kingston A2000 SSD

The Kingston A2000 SSD delivers fast, reliable performance for laptops.

LynQ people compass

The LynQ device creates a private network to help users find one another.

Sublue WhiteShark Mix underwater scooter

Sublue’s WhiteShark Mix underwater scooter propels users underwater, in pools or in the ocean.

Sublue WhiteShark Mix underwater scooter

Explore the ocean with Sublue’s WhiteShark Mix underwater scooter.

Ricoh Imaging Theta SC2 360° camera

The Theta SC2 360° camera creates still or video images that you can rotate around.

Miracle-Gro Twelve

The Miracle-Gro Twelve Indoor Growing System is a smart hydroponic garden for growing herbs and vegetables inside.

Blood-Pressure Monitoring Smartwatch

Smartwatches and other wearables deliver accurate, continuous monitoring of blood pressure for better preventive health measures and disease management.

Introduction to the MAX22700E/D, MAX22701E/D and MAX22702E/D Ultra-High CMTI Isolated Gate Drivers

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's Ultra-High CMTI Isolated Gate Drivers - the MAX22700E/D, MAX22701E/D and MAX22702E/D.

Introduction to the MAX17576 4.5V to 60V, 4A, High-Efficiency, Synchronous Step-Down DC-DC Converter with Internal Compensation

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's 4.5V to 60V, 4A, High-Efficiency, Synchronous Step-Down DC-DC Converter with Internal Compensation - the MAX17576.

Evaluation Kit for Octal Digital Output with SafeDemag

MAX14912EVKIT

Octal HS or push-pull, SafeDemag surge protection with integrated diagnostics and LED matrix.

Learn more ›

Evaluation Kit for Single-Channel Configurable DIO IC

MAX14914EVKIT

The only fully software-configurable DIO push-pull, fast, and surge protection product with SafeDemag.

Learn more ›

Evaluation Kit for Octal Digital Input for Type 1, 3, and 2 Inputs

MAX22190EVKIT

Fully IEC61131-2-compliant octal digital input with wire-break detection, integrated diagnostics, and LED matrix.

Learn more ›

Wireless and wired battery management systems

Compared to its wired counterpart, a wireless battery management system reduces weight and manufacturing complexity.

Wireless battery management system diagram

Maxim’s CES wireless BMS demo compares a wired and wireless BMS solution based on an ISM-band radio.

Wireless Battery Management System

In Maxim’s wireless BMS demo, the wireless architecture features an RF gateway client that acts as a central controller and BMS secondary nodes that communicate data wirelessly back to the gateway.

High CMTI Isolated Gate Driver

The MAX22700D/MAX22702D isolated gate drivers with high CMTI and low propagation delay skew increase efficiency.

Half-bridge push-pull circuit

In a half-bridge push-pull circuit, both switches should not be on at the same time, as this would lead to a short circuit condition.

Isolated Power Converter Circuit

Circuit with galvanically isolated low-voltage microcontroller.

How to Use the MAX745 as a Maximum Power Point Tracker Solar Charger

Sean explains a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) solar charger and how it is used to optimize the efficiency of a solar panel. He then demonstrates how the MAX745 switch-mode lithium-ion battery charger can be used as an MPPT solar charger.

Learn more: MAX745 ›

How to Optimize the Efficiency Performance of a Flyback Converter Using the MAX17606

Furqan explains why a discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) flyback converter, using a secondary-side rectification diode, is unsuitable for low-voltage high-current applications. He then proposes a high-efficiency solution where a MOSFET, controlled by the MAX17606 synchronous MOSFET driver, replaces the secondary-side diode.

Learn more: MAX17606 ›

Object identification application

New ICs are needed to bring intelligence to the edge for applications such as machine learning.

Evaluation Kit for the MAXM17624 3.3V Output-Voltage Application

MAXM17624EVKIT

The MAXM17624 3.3V output evaluation kit (EV kit) provides a proven design to evaluate the MAXM17624 high frequency, high-efficiency, synchronous step-down DC-DC power module.

Learn more ›

Automotive DeepCover Secure Authenticators Stop Counterfeit Parts

Counterfeit after-market automotive parts can ruin the ADAS driving experience. Our DeepCover® secure authenticators, such as the DS28C40, make it impossible for third-party manufacturers to clone critical components for after-market auto repairs.

Learn more: DS28C40 ›

Salesforce Tower at dusk

The Salesforce Tower in San Francisco exemplifies use of modern building automation technologies.

Salesforce Office

Heating, plumbing and other electrical systems inside the Salesforce Tower are controlled via building automation technologies.

Salesforce Tower

Automation technologies inside the Salesforce Tower are making the building more environmentally friendly and, for occupants, comfortable and convenient.

Introduction to the MAX25600 Synchronous High Voltage 4 Switch Buck Boost LED Controller

This video provides an introduction to the MAX25600, a synchronous 4-switch buck-boost LED driver controller.

Blood Pressure Monitoring from Smartphone

An integrated bio-algorithm sensor hub like the MAX32664 accelerates the development cycle for health-monitoring wearables.

Introduction to the MAX17613A MAX17613B MAX17613C 4.5V to 60V, 3A Current Limiter with OV, UV, and Reverse Protection

This video provides an introduction to the MAX17613A MAX17613B MAX17613C, a 4.5V to 60V, 3A Current Limiter with OV, UV, and reverse protection.

Introduction to the MAX77863 Complete System PMIC, Featuring 13 Regulators, 8 GPIOs, RTCD, and Flexible Power Sequencing for Multicore Applications

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's Complete System PMIC, Featuring 13 Regulators, 8 GPIOs, RTCD, and Flexible Power Sequencing for Multicore Applications - the MAX77863.

Evaluation kit for the DS2484