# Pressure Sensing

#### Description

Force, pressure, and stress are generally all grouped into the same measurement category. There are subtle differences: force is a push or pull upon an object from another object, stress is a result of force applied to an object per unit area that causes a deformation, and pressure is a type of stress normally associated with a force applied by a gas or liquid. We won't get into deep physics here; the design considerations, circuits, and block diagram pages focus on how to process a signal from a transducer that responds to different types of forces applied to solids, liquids, or gasses and how to select a signal chain for the application.

#### Design Considerations

The need to measure force generally arises in order to keep a system either under control or alternatively, in one piece. For example, a steam boiler made with a certain thickness of steel plate can resist a certain amount of pressure. If the pressure exceeds the material's threshold the boiler will rupture or explode. By measuring and monitoring the pressure within the boiler, certain controls can be added to the boiler, like a relief valve or signal that reduces the heat applied to the boiler in order to avoid a catastrophic event. Pressure transducers are used to measure this type of force. Another example: a bridge doesn't move, usually, but it is subject to forces due to weather (wind and temperature differentials) and load (weight of the structure and vehicles traversing the bridge). These conditions cause stress within the materials, and if the materials receive stress beyond what they are capable of handling the material can tear apart. Strain gauges are used to measure these forces and can determine if a structure is abnormally deforming so action can be taken before a failure occurs.

#### Signal Chain Functions and Operation

The accurate measurement of force, pressure, and stress requires a transducer or sensor capable of providing a signal that reflects the force, pressure, or stress that a measured object is experiencing. The ideal transducer provides a linear output – an output that increases linearly with increasing pressure or stress, and subsequently decreases linearly as the pressure or stress decreases. Most transducers however operate with some degree of non-linearity. For accurate measurements the signal usually must be linearized within the input circuitry.

Most force sensing transducers provide an output signal level that is very low, in the sub millivolt to tens of millivolts range. This range is similar in magnitude to the electrical noise within an environment. So circuitry must be designed to amplify the signal while filtering or rejecting noise. Fortunately the measurement of force does not require exceptionally high sampling rates, making filtering easier. Most signal chains are designed to meet an accuracy objective which includes low drift in time and with temperature changes. The circuitry must provide exceptional reliability.

Most pressure or force transducers take the electrical form of a Wheatstone bridge:

Figure 1. Wheatstone bridge diagram

A Wheatstone bridge circuit, once balanced, outputs a voltage proportional to the change in resistance of one or more of the resistors within the bridge. A strain gauge or MEMS transducer is essentially a variable resistor and when used for measuring force is placed into a Wheatstone bridge circuit either with other strain gauges or other precision resistors so that the bridge is nulled. When one or more of the strain gauges experiences stress or deformation, a voltage appears on the bridge output.

The purpose of the signal chain is to accurately bring a very small analog signal to digital. To do this, the sensor signal chain performs the following functions:

1. Transducer excitation

Accurate and stable voltage or current sources with low-temperature drift are required for sensor excitation. To easily eliminate effects of reference voltage tolerance, it is common practice to use the same reference for both the sensor excitation and the analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This makes the signals ratiometric, eliminating first-order tolerances allowing the use of less accurate references, or alternately providing higher performance from a given reference.

2. Signal amplification

In many designs the transducer's output full scale range will be very low (e.g., 20mV), while the input full scale range of ADC is much wider (e.g., 2V). In such cases, the transducer's output signal must be amplified to match the input range of the ADC before it is converted by the ADC to digital.

3. Filtering

The bandwidth of the sensor transducer signal is generally narrow and the sensitivity to noise is high. It is, therefore, useful to limit the signal bandwidth by filtering to reduce the total noise. Filtering is usually accomplished using a passive filter.

4. Analog to digital conversion

This process involves accurately converting the analog signal into digital without introducing any artifacts or abnormalities during the conversion. Two primary converter architectures that are used in sensor signal chains are: SAR and Delta Sigma. Delta Sigma converters provide a good combination of low power, high resolution (up to 24-bit) and digital signal processing at low sampling rate. This meets the requirement for many sensors with low bandwidth signal. A fast SAR ADC provides a good combination of low power, medium/high resolution (up to 20-bit), fast settling time and no latency. This might be more appropriate when fast acquisition or many channels are being multiplexed into one ADC.

5. Linearization

Some sensors have a non-linear output. If the sensor output characteristic is well known and repeatable, the output can be linearized thereby increasing the accuracy of the design. These days generally digital linearization is more cost effective and more flexible. Digital linearization uses a lookup table after the signal is digitized to provide a correct linearized value for each output code from the ADC. Some more complex solutions may also require the use of digital signal processing (DSP) techniques for signal manipulation, error compensation, gain, and filtering depending on the transducer and the degree of accuracy required.

#### Physical Elements of the Signal Chain

The design engineer who needs to measure a force usually starts with a signal chain that encompasses:

1. Input multiplexor to handle multiple signals in one chain.
2. One or more op amps for amplification and filtering.
3. An analog-to-digital converter.
4. One or more voltage references
5. A microcontroller for digital signal processing and communications.

While custom signal chains can be designed to meet exact performance and cost needs, it is also possible that a modern, highly integrated single chip AFE product might fit the design parameters, especially if the design is for a mainstream application. At a minimum, AFE ICs integrate an ADC and a programmable-gain amplifier. See the section below "Highly integrated Signal Chains" for more information

#### Specifying a Custom Signal Chain

The engineer's main task is to specify a signal chain that will reliably provide the signal measurements within the specified uncertainty range while also meeting cost constraints. There are many available performance tradeoffs especially when cost is a factor.

For the sensor signal chain, the quality of measurement is taken in account by:

• Accuracy or systematic error
• Precision or random error

Systematic error sources can be classified into three main categories:

• Gain error
• Offset error
• Linearity error

Precision or random error sources include:

• Quantization Noise
• Thermal noise
• Shot Noise
• Flicker noise

The total error in the system is the combination of both error types.  Generally speaking each error type contributes about half of the total error, so to improve the quality of the measurements provided by the signal chain; the individual components should be chosen and configured to minimize both error types.

Let's review primary selection criteria for each element in a custom signal chain.

The most basic parameters involved in selecting an ADC are:

1. Channels required
2. Sampling rate
3. Nominal resolution

Channels Required

Most ADCs provide one input channel but some products also integrate a multiplexor function to provide multi-input functionality.

Sampling rate:

Sampling rate for sensor applications is generally considered to be fairly low from a technology standpoint. Usually 50 samples a second will work, so multiply this by the number of channels being serviced by the same ADC to get your required sampling rate. Today's ADC technology provides much greater sampling rates in most cases, even when cost is a primary factor.

Resolution:

The resolution of an ADC is the number of steps, or divisions, that the ADC can divide the maximum input voltage into. For example a 12-bit ADC can provide 212 or 4096 divisions and a 16-bit ADC can provide 216 or 65536 divisions.

The resolution provided by the 2n formula is the ideal resolution and most ADCs usually don't meet this ideal resolution due to physical factors, most importantly thermal noise generated by the device and the signal chain. Some ADCs will provide a "noise-free resolution" spec. Use this specification as the converter's resolution to remove effects of noise.

As an example, if building a postage weigh scale, and the spec is to accurately measure to the nearest tenth of an ounce over a 10 pound range, you'll need an ADC capable of providing a minimum of 1,600 divisions, but to get repeatable accuracy to take into account thermal noise, other converter noise, and other signal chain errors, you'll usually multiply this value by 10, so for this application, 16,000 divisions. In this application a 16-bit ADC could most likely provide the needed resolution, if the input provided by the transducer is close to the converter's input range.

A typical 16-bit ADC that has an input (full scale) range of 3 Volts can resolve input divisions of 3/216 or 46 µVolts. If the maximum input signal can only reach 1V, due to an amplification limitation, the maximum number of divisions that the ADC will be able to detect is 1/3 of the max, or about 22,000 divisions. This would still be good enough to meet the postage scale example specs.

Thermal Noise effect on Resolution

Because of the noise errors accumulated within an ADC actual output codes generated by an ADC are never a single value. They are a range of values represented by histogram having an approximate Gaussian distribution. To ensure that the ADC will provide the needed resolution for the input voltage range it is a good idea to calculate the number noise free input divisions that the converter can provide (if it hasn't been provided in the product specification).

Statistics tells us that with Gaussian curves, 99% of the values output will fall within 6.6 sigma of the mean value, with the mean value centered on the most probable or expected division.

Figure 2. Noise free range illustrated

To help calculate this value most ADCs contain a parameter called VRMS Noise. Find this value on the datasheet. Multiply it by 6.6 to get the minimum noise free step in terms of Voltage that the converter can provide. Then take the input range and divide it by the minimum noise free step to get the noise free resolution. If this number is more than the number of divisions required in the application then the selected ADC should fit. If not, and it is not possible to further amplify the input from the sensor element, look for an ADC with a lower VRMS Noise specification. Here's an example:

The MAX11205 16-bit ADC provides a thermal noise specification of: 720nVRMS Noise

With an amplified sensor voltage input of 1 Volt, the number of noise free input divisions that the ADC can provide is:

1 / (.00000720 x 6.6) = 213,000

The MAX11205 has an exceptionally low VRMS Noise specification, and so it can easily provide the noise free resolution that the above application requires.

Alternate phrasing for specifications involving the calculation of noise free resolution include: noise-free counts or codes inside the range.

Most high-precision ADC data sheets specify thermal noise as input referred noise and provide the specification in RMS noise or peak-to-peak noise. Sigma Delta converter data sheets typically report input referred noise or peak-to-peak noise vs. data rate output. The input referred noise is typically measured with input shorted and the noise is calculated from noise histogram plots.

Single or double ended inputs

ADC ICs are available with single-ended or differential inputs. For designs that require high precision and sensing of very low input voltage changes, an ADC with differential inputs is recommended. The differential input provides the best noise rejection, and wider dynamic range compared to a single-ended input. See application note 1108, "Understanding Single-Ended, Pseudo-Differential and Fully-Differential ADC Inputs", to obtain a more in-depth understanding.

INL – Integral Non-Linearity

In designs that require lower resolution ADCs, such as 10-bit through 16-bit converters, the INL parameter is a key parameter in determining the accuracy of the device. INL error is described as the deviation, in LSB or percent of full-scale range (FSR), of an actual transfer function from a straight line. All else being equal choose the ADC with a lower INL parameter in order to select the ADC that will provide the best accuracy. See application note 283, "INL/DNL Measurements for High-Speed Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs)", for a more in-depth understanding.

#### Selecting an Op Amp

The function of the op amp in a signal chain is to amplify the output of the transducer in a linear fashion so that the maximum transducer output approximately matches the input range of the ADC. This acts to maximize the resolution of the signal chain.

Most load cells will provide a "span" or "sensitivity" specification that provides the maximum change of the cell's output for every Volt of excitation. Common ranges for load cells are 2mV/V to 20mV/V. Typically excitation voltages range from 3V to 5V. With this, the maximum output provided by transducers of this type can range from 10mV to 100mV, a fairly wide range but very dependent on the selected transducer.

The amplifier should convert this range to the maximum input range that the ADC can accommodate. Typically the ADC has a useable input range of from 2.5V to 3.3V. So the input amplifier might have to provide gains of 50 to 200 depending on the application.

The input op amp needs to amplify signals that are in the microvolt and millivolt range, the same range as naturally occurring noise. It is important that this circuit is selected properly and also laid out properly to prevent the amplification step from introducing errors. Look for low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) with extremely low offset voltage (VOS), low temperature, and offset drifts for this application.

In most small signal designs a low noise "auto-zero" op amp is the preferred op amp type. This will minimize the offset error potential in your signal chain. The MAX44246 is an example of this type of op amp. The diagram below shows a typical op amp deployment. Note the use of dual single ended op amps in lieu of an instrumentation amplifier. This approach provides better results when used with differential input ADCs.

Figure 3. Typical Op Amp deployment within a pressure sensing signal chain

Tip: Most pressure transducers take the form of a Wheatstone bridge. Please see application note 3426, "Resistive Bridge Basics: Part One", for in-depth information about working with Wheatstone bridge circuits.

#### Selecting a Multiplexor

When selecting a multiplexor the design engineer primarily needs to know the basics: the number of input channels. In addition, the multiplexor must be able to accommodate the full input voltage range. In addition make sure the switching speed is fast enough for the application. Generally the product with the lowest "on" resistance that meets your cost goals is the best.

#### Selecting a Reference

The voltage reference provides a known voltage level at a high precision. Any deviation of the stated reference level can induce error into the system. For the sensor measurement application, the output of the reference is used as an input to the ADC or AFE and also as excitation to the transducer. This way if the reference voltage varies due to noise or other anomaly, both the sensor input and ADC experiences the same variance, reducing the total error.

The voltage reference contributes to systematic and random error. The reference noise source degrades the noise performance of the ADC. So a reference with better performance than the ADC should be chosen. The reference's initial error and drift over temperature and time for a high precision system is one of the most important contributors of gain error. For systems that are calibrated, the drift over temperature and time is the most critical parameter.

Key parameters in selecting a reference include: load drive, initial accuracy, noise, temperature drift, and stability. The load drive in a pressure sensor application can be higher than in many other applications due to the need to drive the transducer. Transducer load can be in the range of 10 to 20 milliamps for a typical pressure transducer in addition to that required by the ADC.

The MAX6325/MAX6341/MAX6350 are low-noise, precision voltage references with extremely low, 0.5ppm/°C, typical temperature coefficients and excellent, ±0.02% initial accuracy. These references are recommended for signal chains with ADCs of 16-bit resolution and up.

For more in-depth information on selecting voltage references, please see this application note:

Application Note 2879: "Selecting the Optimum Voltage Reference"

#### Correcting Errors

Achieving accuracy in an application means having to be able to correct for linearization errors, component offset errors, and system noise.

As you work through the math required to calculate the operating voltages of the circuit, rounding, and measuring tolerances can quickly cause errors to build up.

For example, linearity of the devices from the load cell through the op amp and ADC will add error into the design. Fortunately today it is very easy to correct errors through digital linearization. Essentially this process uses a lookup table that provides the ideally expected digital output for every actual digital output received. The key to digital linearization is that it can remove errors that are repeatable.

Errors due to minor differences between component values used on individual circuits have to be calibrated out; usually this is a one-time adjustment. Errors due to noise have to be averaged out by taking multiple readings and presenting an average reading as the final output – ADCs that employ the delta-sigma algorithm have this type of averaging built-in.

#### Highly integrated Signal Chains

Many signal chain applications can be implemented with a highly integrated AFE chip. The benefit of using a single chip or integrated signal chain IC is that it makes the design much easier, reducing component selection time, layout, and troubleshooting, while also generally providing improved specifications for an application. The integration of the input op amp with the ADC on a single chip can provide much better total system performance. The tradeoff in using this approach might be less optimization from a cost standpoint.

At a minimum, an integrated signal chain IC will include a programmable gain op amp and an ADC. Some AFE ICs also provide an input multiplexor for implementing 1 to 4 channels. The output of an AFE is traditionally serial digital with I2C and SPI being favored interface standards.

Selecting an integrated AFE is much the same as selecting a discrete signal chain, though fewer design options will be available. For example amplifier gain may be limited, and you'll most likely have to over-specify some parameters to get the overall desired performance.

Just like selecting a discrete signal chain, when choosing an AFE (for example PGA + ADC), after selecting the number of channels required, sampling rate and the nominal resolution, it is again important to carefully evaluate the specifications that have the most impact on systematic and random error (those that have the most effect on accuracy and precision). For the most part, this is thermal noise and noise free resolution.

Noise performance specifications and terms like noise-free range or effective resolution that indicate how well an AFE can distinguish a fixed input level are reported typically in the datasheets. Alternate phrasing for these applications might be noise-free counts or codes inside the range.

For thermal noise, most high-precision AFE data sheets specify input referred noise, in terms of RMS noise or peak-to-peak noise. The input referred noise is typically measured with input shorted and the noise is calculated from noise histogram plots. AFE data sheets that use Sigma Delta converters with a PGA typically report input referred noise or peak-to-peak noise in a table vs. data rate output and PGA gain.

Examples of integrated signal chain products from Maxim that are optimal for use in pressure sensor applications include: the MAX1415, a two channel 16 bit ADC with integrated PGA; and the MAX11270, a high end 24-bit ADC with PGA.

For further information:

Click on the Circuits tab to view IC circuit examples.

Click on the block diagram tab to view selected sensor related end products to view available and recommended Maxim products for by function.

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Greg presents an overview of the speakers best suited for DSM. In this video, he explains how DSM works with the three most common types of micro speaker configurations: a speaker driver in a sealed enclosure, a bare driver, and a ported speaker.

Micro Speaker 101

Michael explains the similarities between a micro speaker and a standard speaker, and describes its three main components - the diaphragm, coil, and magnet. He then tears down a micro speaker to show the various parts of the device including its speaker driver.

Introduction to the MAX33250E/51E 600V Isolated 2Tx/2Rx and 1Tx/1Rx RS-232 Transceivers with ±15kV ESD and Integrated Capacitors

This video provides an introduction to the MAX33250E and MAX33251E, which are isolated 2Tx/2Rx and 1Tx/1Rx RS-232 transceivers respectively, with agalvanic isolation of 600VRMS (60sec) between the logic UART side and field side.

Introduction to the MAX5855 16-Bit, 4.9Gsps Wideband Interpolating and Modulating RF DAC with JESD204B Interface

This video provides an introduction to the MAX5855 and MAX5857, 16-Bit, 4.9Gsps Wideband Interpolating and Modulating RF DACs with JESD204B Interface.

#### How ChipDNA PUF Technology Protects Your Secrets

How ChipDNA PUF Technology Protects Your Secrets

Learn how ChipDNA physically unclonable function (PUF) technology keeps your secrets safe.

#### Introduction to the DS28E50 DeepCover Secure SHA-3 Authenticator with ChipDNA PUF Protection

Introduction to the DS28E50 DeepCover Secure SHA-3 Authenticator with ChipDNA PUF Protection

Learn about the DS28E50, the first DeepCover® secure authenticator with the SHA-3 algorithm. Watch firsthand what SHA-3 authentication, combined with the ChipDNA physically unclonable function (PUF), can do for your next project.

Using the MAXQ1061 – Part 3: Building and Compiling

In the third video of this series, we show how to build the SDK. At the end, you’ll learn how to modify the source code, compile it, and see the effect on the MAXQ1061-KIT.

Using the MAXQ1061 – Part 2: Software Installation

In the second video of this series, we show how to connect to the SFTP site to download the software development kit (SDK) for the MAXQ1061-KIT. We review the basic configuration for the Raspberry Pi and run a simple command for checking for a proper hardware connection. In the next video, “Using the MAXQ1061 – Part 3: Building and Compiling,” you’ll learn how to modify the source code.

Using the MAXQ1061 – Part 1: Unboxing and Hardware Setup

In the first video of this series, we unbox the evaluation kit for the MAXQ1061 DeepCover® Cryptographic Controller for Embedded Devices, demonstrate proper handling and make the necessary connections. In the next video, “Using the MAXQ1061 – Part 2: Software Installation,” you’ll learn how to configure the software.

How to Add LED Indicators to Your Battery Fuel Gauge with the MAX17263

Travis explains how to use the MAX17263 for both fuel gauging and driving an LED battery indicator. He explains the concept of Charlieplexing LED circuits and demonstrates the flexible features and simple GUI of the MAX17263GEVKIT.

How to Stay Cool with the MAX30205 as a Stand-Alone Thermostat

Darragh demonstrates how to test the overtemperature and hysteresis functions of the MAX30205 human body temperature sensor by using the MAX30205EVSYS to signal the MAX32630FTHR microcontroller board to switch a fan on and off.

How to Talk to Peripheral Devices through a SerDes Link in Bypass Mode

Darragh explains how to operate a serializer-deserializer link in I2C bypass mode to control remote peripherals, and demonstrates remote light sensing with the MAX9281 and MAX9276A.

How to Amp Up Your Sound with the MAX98400A 40W Class D Amplifier

Katie demonstrates the operation of the MAX98400A stereo, high-power, Class D amplifier using the MAX98400AEVKIT and a boom box setup. Stereo audio (20W per speaker) and mono audio (40W) capabilities are both used to demonstrate direct speaker driving and filtered output driving.

Read App Note › Pack Your Music and Upcycle That Old Suitcase

How to Set Up the MAX32631-EVKIT Using Eclipse on a Mac

Venkatesh shows how to set up Maxim's Arm® Microcontroller Toolchain in Eclipse on a Mac. He runs a demo program using the MAX32631-EVKIT, which evaluates the MAX32630/MAX32631/MAX32632 DARWIN ultra-low-power Arm Cortex®-M4 with FPU-based microcontrollers.

How to Program the MAX7360 Key Switch Controller using Mbed®

Venkatesh shows how to interface a microcontroller with the MAX7360 using the Mbed environment. He then demonstrates how to use the MAX32625PICO to monitor key switches connected to the MAX7360.

Battery Charging with the MAX20094/MAX20095 Backup Battery Charger and Boost Controllers

Chikira shows how to charge a lithium-ion battery with the MAX20094/MAX20095 integrated backup battery charger and boost controllers using the MAX20094EVKIT and associated GUI.

#### Linear Regulators

Fundamentals of Linear Regulators: LDO to SEPIC

Learn the basics of linear regulators such as low-dropout (LDO) linear regulators and single-ended primary inductor converter (SEPIC) switch mode ICs, including their features, benefits, and topologies.

Introduction to the MAX3522B/MAX3523 DOCSIS 3.1 Programmable Gain Amplifiers

This video provides an introduction to the MAX3522B and MAX3523 which are part of a family of pin for pin compatible high performance CATV upstream amplifier IC's.

IO-Link Solutions Demo – electronica 2018

Konrad shows how Maxim's IO-Link® solutions overcome today's challenges when designing for minimum power dissipation in the smallest solution size.

® solutions overcome today's challenges when designing for minimum power dissipation in the smallest solution size.

Overview of Temperature Sensors

In this video, learn the basic concepts of temperature sensors and using temperature sensing devices such as temperature switches, resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), and thermocouples.

Overview of Thermal Management and Fan Controllers

Learn about thermal management, examine fan controllers in detail, and see how signal conditioner products are used for non-IC temperature sensors.

Introduction to the MAX38888 Super Cap Regulator

This video provides an introduction to the MAX38888, a super cap back-up regulator designed to efficiently transfer power between the cap and supply rail.

#### Fundamentals of Pulse Oximeter Circuits

Fundamentals of Pulse Oximeter Circuits

Learn the fundamentals of pulse oximetry and photoplethysmography (PPG) for measuring heart rate and SpO2. We walk through the operation and critical design considerations for a fully integrated heart rate and SpO2 monitor, including ambient light cancellation and motion compensation algorithms. Common applications and solutions are presented.

Introduction to the MAX20326 Dual Precision Bus Accelerator

This video provides an introduction to the MAX20326, a dual-channel, precision, open-drain, communication-line accelerator.

FPGA Data Converters

In this interview with Avnet, Xilinx and Maxim, we discuss the Xilinx demonstration platform and evaluation boards to expand the capability, and add on more functionality and features with Xilinx’s FMC connector. Maxim has created an FMC card to easily add signal chain to your Xilinx design.

FPGA 1-Wire Security

In this interview with Avnet, Xilinx and Maxim, we discuss how to protect your FPGA IP with SHA-1 authentication and 1k bit memory solution for less than \$1.00 for 1000 unit volume.

MAX98355/MAX98356 Product Features

These easy digital input amps can lower both power consumption and costs. They’re immune to the noise that plagues analog amps, so you can place them far from the hub; but unlike other digital amps, they need no master clock source.

MAX98090 Fully Integrated Audio CODEC

Achieve better audio quality and longer battery life, all in a smaller form factor. Six input pins let you accept up to three microphone signals; FlexSound™ DSP gives you a 7-band parametric equalizer, gain control, dynamic range control and more.

ModelGauge Fuel Gauges

Give batteries a longer life—and end users a great reason to be satisfied. Let a Maxim expert guide you through the latest battery “fuel gauge” developments, and learn why a great fuel gauge can be key to any battery-powered product’s success.

DS28E35 DeepCover® Secure Authenticator

“Hacking” traditionally means software, but malicious counterfeit hardware can wreak even more damage. Now see how the DeepCover platform powers rock-solid hardware integrity authentication that’s also ingeniously simple to design in.

Integrated Healthcare Depends on Integrated Analog

Healthcare costs can be reduced through quality outpatient care. The key is prevention: Securely monitoring vital signs, but in a lifestyle-appropriate way. Enter analog integration, which dramatically reduces equipment cost and size.

PIXI PMOD Demo

Introducing PIXI, the first programmable mixed-signal I/O technology. First, get a peek at the PIXI PMOD’s easy drag-and-drop software GUI. Then see how versatile its 20 ports really are, helping to cut BOM costs and speed time to market.

Add Counterfeit Protection with Maxim's DeepCover® Secure Authenticators

Explore new breakthroughs in hardware-based counterfeit and IP authentication, courtesy of Maxim’s proprietary platform. Includes a deep dive into both traditional authentication methods and DeepCover’s much more comprehensive SHA-256-based approach.

MAX98091 Ultra-Low Power Stereo Audio Codec

The MAX98091 is a fully integrated ultra-low power stereo audio codec with 4 milliwatt playback power consumption.

MAX98090 Evaluation Board Quick Setup

Training on how to quickly set up the MAX98090 Evaluation board and GUI. The MAX98090 evaluation system let you quickly stream music through headsets and speakers and allows you to change gain, filters, and equalization graphically through an easy to use tool.

Make it Easy - Lite Waveform Generator

Sometimes you just need a portable, simple waveform generator for debugging or demos. This USB-powered generator plugs into your PC, with no wall power needed, and includes a GUI. It’s remarkably accurate, too—just watch the oscilloscope.

Maxim Power Solutions for Xilinx FPGAs

Here’s evidence that Maxim and Xilinx have been working closely together, to help you power up Xilinx FPGAs without a lot of time, budget, or power supply expertise. Minimize power dissipation and board space, and get to market sooner.

1-Wire® Contact Packages

Add functionality like memory or authentication to a peripheral, without bulky PCB-mounted pads. These tiny contact packages mount right on the peripheral at just 3.5mm x 6.5mm—no PCB needed. They’re more durable, simpler, and cheaper too.

The 4th Industrial Revolution Has Arrived

For years, Moore’s Law drove down the size and cost of processors; now, it’s reaching its limits. What’s next? Industry 4.0: Sensor and analog innovations that let PLCs sit closer to the machines they control. Learn how you can join the revolution.

Maxim's Micro PLC Demo Platform Meets Industry 4.0 Challenges

The Big Question: how to make a PLC 10X smaller. We did it, and we’ll show you how. See how analog takes up to 85% of the space on a typical board, and how new integration developments cut power use in half—while increasing throughput 70X.

Synchronous Power Conversion Technology

Synchronous Power Conversion Technology

www.maximintegrated.com/synchronous-converters

In The Lab: Himalaya Buck Converters

Introducing something new: Synchronous DC-DC converters that replace traditional asynchronous converters’ external diode with an integrated MOSFET. The result is a cooler, smaller, simpler solution that lowers your total system cost.

In The Lab: High-Efficiency Power Supply Reference Designs

Let's face it: with tighter schedules and the complexity of today's board designs, you're being asked to do a lot in a short amount of time.

Learn how we can help you meet these challenges with power supply reference designs that will get you to market sooner while saving cost, space and power. Features of these complete designs include industrial level input voltages, high efficiency operation, very small board size and programmable settings.

EE Web Tech Lab – Secure Drug Delivery Solution

Some medications can cost thousands of dollars—inviting counterfeiting, which puts health care institutions, insurance companies, and of course patients at risk. This clever proposed in-vial security solution is based on Maxim’s Deep Cover platform.

Ultrasonic Flow Meter SoC: 10x More Accurate

Utilities today waste fully 30 percent of the water they pump. But with this new solid state flow meter SoC, you can easily design in more accurate water measurement, to give customers the accuracy mechanical meters have been missing.

Detecting and Diagnosing Grid Faults with Fewer False Triggers

Utilities lose \$79 billion annually to power outages. Our high speed, high accuracy, high sampling rate ADCs can help utilities detect, diagnose, and locate faults and restore power quickly. This simulation of an intelligent distribution automation system demonstrates how our data converters can help characterize the nature of the faults, reduce the average interruption time by a third, and reduce power restoration time from 45 minutes to less than 3 minutes.

www.maximintegrated.com/IntegratedEnergy

Analog Measurement for Low Power, Low Noise Sensors

Measure temperature and weight more precisely, with lower power, in a smaller form factor. Detect wider ranges, too. These reference designs demonstrate why Maxim keeps on setting the bar for advanced, integrated industrial controls.

Fit Two Shirt: A Wearable Wellness Platform Example

Wearable electronics have the potential to improve lifestyles, from the active fitness enthusiast to those with chronic illnesses who need round-the-clock vital signs monitoring. The latest Fit Shirt demonstrates our wellness platform of products designed specifically for wearable electronics. Sensors built into the shirt gather data on heart rate, oxygen saturation, ECG, motion, respiration and body temperature. The on- board microcontroller delivers results to a tablet via Bluetooth, and advanced power management allows the battery to run for weeks at a time.

Smaller, Cooler, High-Voltage DC-DC Converters

Get heat dissipation 50% lower than any competing product! Keep designs smaller and cooler with these regulators that include integrated MOSFETS and compensation. This board features seven tiny regulators, from 100 milliamps to 3.5 amps.

Body Temperature Measurement: Send and Receive With Wearable NFC

Now your team can design devices that spot-measure the body’s core temperature with underarm tags, then “beam” it to a tablet. It’s an in-demand alternative to old-fashioned oral thermometers. Help customers beat hospital-borne infection.

Smallest 4-Channel I/O-Link Master and RGB Sensor

Like USB on an industrial scale, this “Quad Master” connects multiple sensor types to a central processing unit such as a Micro PLC—allowing the processing unit to provide valuable feedback to the sensors, and ultimately boosting productivity.

70x Faster Digital I/O Modules

Cut your digital I/O costs! Serialized input reduces design complexity, so you’re dealing with fewer components. Meanwhile, output processes data 70X faster than anything on the market, with 8 channels to drive legacy relays and switches.

Pulse Oximetry Measurement: Wearable Oxygen Monitor for Active Lifestyles

This pulse ox patch alerts COPD, allergy, and other patients to issues before they become life-threatening. It measures heart rate, heart valve operation, and oxygen level via optical signal and motion sensors.

Micro PLC: Cooler, Smaller, Faster

See how we cut PLC footprints by 10X and power consumption in half, with 70% faster throughput. The Micro PLC brings Industry 4.0 to life, putting controllers closer to the floor while slashing the annual \$800 billion spent on maintenance.

Mobile POS: An Advanced Cryptographic and Physical Security Solution

Discover how to turn phones and tablets into POS acceptance devices. Based on our secure Deep Cover platform with a Cortex M3 core, this highly-integrated reference design can accept both smart (chip-based) and magnetic stripe cards.

Wellness Watch: A Wearable Wellness Platform Example

Built around Maxim’s family of medical microcontrollers, the Wellness Watch monitors heart rate, oxygen level, movement, position, temperature, and mood response. In addition to measuring body vital signs, the Wellness Watch has built-in security.

Beer Mug Factory: Maxim Integrated Industrial Products in Action

It’s Industry 4.0 in action. Watch as this fully-automated assembly line automatically creates a customized mug, complete with a token insert and individual signature, all controlled via handheld tablet. Analog integration makes it possible.

In the Lab: Analog Output Design Accelerator Kit

The components of an analog output must work seamlessly together. A purchased one can be complicated and incomplete; but building your own is a huge headache. Now there’s a third choice, with a power supply, diagnostics, schematics and a custom GUI.

In the Lab: Eliminate Flicker for MR16 LED Lighting

Designing circuits for MR16 LED lighting has two big challenges: dimming the lamp without flicker, and compatibility with electronic low-voltage transformers (ELVT). This video demonstrates how the MAX16840 LED Driver's current control scheme eliminates MR16 flicker at all dimming levels, even when used with a variety of electronic transformers.

In the Lab: Bluetooth Control of Power-over-Ethernet Lighting

See how simple it is to develop Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) based lighting. This video demonstrates an easy way to provide on/off and dimming control for an LED bulb using a smartphone with bluetooth connection. The simple design is made possible by the MAX5969 powered device controller and the MAX16832 high-voltage LED Driver IC.

In the Lab: IO-Link Smart Sensor System Demo

See how easy it is to get an IO-Link smart sensor system up and running with live data monitoring. Our 4-port IO-Link Master reference design (MAXREFDES79) leverages plug-and-play capability and the easy to use software GUI to monitor data from each of our four IO-link device modules: ambient light sensor (MAXREFDES23), proximity sensor (MAXREFDES27), RTD-to-digital sensor (MAXREFDES42), and 16-channel digital input (DI) hub (MAXREFDES36).

Discover the benefits of the IO-Link smart sensor and actuator interface protocol. IO-Link is the new standard developed by an international consortium of hardware and software providers. IO-Link's remote programming capabilities and backwards compatibility enable direct factory upgrade from binary sensors to smart sensor functionality.

How to Order Parts

How to Request a Quote

We Hear You

Maxim executives speak frankly about how we’ve re-energized our customer commitment, by rebuilding our systems, processes, supply chain, and organizational structure to deliver satisfaction every time. We’re listening. You’ll know it.

The Future of PoE LED Lighting

See examples of what the future holds for power over ethernet (PoE) LED lighting in the internet of things (IoT).

How to Find a Reliability Report

Solar Cell Optimizers Offer Huge Gains in Energy Harvesting

Solar Cell Optimizers provide huge gains in solar energy harvesting while simplifying installation and reducing overall cost. Our breakthrough technology embeds the MPPT function deep within each solar module, allowing more panels in the same space.

Surround View: From Fisheye to Birdseye

Surround View: From Fisheye to Birdseye

How to Submit a Sample Request Online

Solar Cell Optimizers Significantly Improve Module Performance

Learn how our solar cell optimizers improve solar cell performance by up to 20%. Unprecedented tolerance for inter-row shading allows the tightest row spacing. Our innovative technology prevents object shading hot-spots, extending the life of your modules. No special tools, hardware or wiring are required for installation.

Brushed DC Quad Motor Controller mbed Shield

What could you build with a brushed DC motor controller Arduino® shield? Our Arduino-compatible brushed DC motor driver reference design drives up to four motors, and easily interfaces to an mbed® platform. Featuring MAX14871, 4.5V to 36V full-bridge DC motor driver, MAXREFDES89 can be used with a wide range of motors, from mid-voltage down to battery powered. Watch this short video to see MAXREFDES89 in action.

The universal analog input is extremely popular in industrial systems. It accepts voltage, current, RTD and thermocouple inputs which provides flexibility for use in control and automation applications. Learn how our 24-bit universal analog input board makes use of the latest technologies and an innovative system architecture to simplify configuration and improve performance while reducing cost. All in an ultra-small Micro PLC form factor.

EE-Sim Design Requirements

How to set the Design Requirement specifications and create a schematic.

MAX38902EVKIT Board Photo

Evaluation Kit for the MAX38902A/MAX38902B/MAX38902C/MAX38902D (12μVRMS Low Noise 500mA LDO Linear Regulator)

Prioritize the design size, efficiency, or BOM cost based on your design needs. Learn how this selection is implemented in your schematic.

#### MAX98357, MAX98358, MAX98357/8, auto-configuring amp, auto-configuring digital class D amps, amplifier, class D amplifier, digital amplifier

Digital Input Class D Amplifiers Eliminate GSM Buzz

Our next generation digital input, Class D audio amplifiers provide the highest performance with superior noise immunity while simplifying design. These plug and play speaker amplifiers significantly reduce the number of components required compared to typical analog amplifier designs. Learn how we eliminate GSM buzz, simplify board design and reduce EMI while providing high 3.2W output power.

EE-Sim DC-DC Tool Overview

See a demonstration of the most commonly used functionality in EE-Sim. Includes opening a new DC-DC design, changing design requirements, creating a schematic, running simulations, comparing designs, and generating a report.

#### MAXREFDES73

Wearable Galvanic Skin Response System

Are you developing a wearable device? Galvanic skin response (GSR), or skin impedance, adds another dimension to health monitoring that is not captured by accelerometers and heart rate monitors. See how our GSR reference design captures non-aerobic effort for activities such as yoga.

Smart Force Sensor Human Machine Interface Demo

Watch a demo of our new concept for human-machine interfaces. Traditional touchscreens are fragile and don’t work well with gloves. Our smart force sensor reference design measures mass and center of mass to provide location and downward force of the touch input. MAXREFDES82 is a rugged, low power design that works in harsh environments where gloves may be required and glass is not allowed.

From the Meter Bar to the Band Gap Voltage Reference

Almost every electronic system incorporates a voltage reference. This tutorial will familiarize you with voltage references, their construction and performance. Zener and Band Gap technologies are discussed in detail, along with important performance parameters and recommended solutions for common circuit requirements.

Choose the Right Step-Up/Step-Down Voltage Regulator for Portable Applications

Portable devices are frequently powered by a single cell Lithium-Ion battery. The voltage swing from high to low after a full day's use presents a challenge for the loads powered by the battery, especially when the load requires a stable input voltage in the middle of the Lithium-Ion range of operation. This tutorial discusses this challenge and provides an optimum solution.

Taking PC Security to a New Level

Learn how Design Shift, our design house partner, developed ORWL, a personal computer with physical security that utilizes the latest encryption methods to immediately detect tampering. The MAX32550 Cortex-M3 microcontroller with secure boot-loader is integrated into the motherboard to control power, interface with the display, communicate with the key fob and monitor the unit for tampering.

Buck Converter: The Power Train and LC Filter

The buck converter is considered by many to be the king of switching voltage regulators. Modern electronic designs frequently need to step a voltage source down to a value suitable to power a load while sustaining minimal losses. The buck converter is the simplest, most effective and most efficient way to achieve this goal. This technical tutorial reviews the theory and operation of the heart of the buck converter: the power train and LC filter.

Heart Rate Monitor Demo

Watch a live demo of a simple but accurate heart rate monitor design (MAXREFDES117) developed around our tiny, low-power heart rate sensor (MAX30102). Step-by-step instructions show you how to quickly set up and start receiving data using two popular development platforms–mbed® and Arduino®. Don't miss the bonus heart rate demo with the Adafruit Flora® wearable electronic platform!

Cosmetic Sensor Demo

Cosmetic sensor demo with testimonials

Storefront Overview

Overview of the ecommerce storefront.

How to Submit a Formal Quote

Walkthrough of the quote request process in the ecommerce storefront.

How to Place an Order with an Approved Quote

Walkthrough of placing an order with an approved quote through the ecommerce storefront.

How to Place an Order

Walkthrough of the ordering process in the ecommerce storefront.

Cell-String Optimizers Enable Flexible PV System Design

Produce more energy and simplify the design of complex rooftops by using cell-string optimizers in place of traditional bypass diodes. All while continuing to use preferred inverter and BOM components with no change to your existing installation and commissioning process.

Solar Cell Optimizer Technology ›

Demo: Enable Trusted Sensors and Notification for IoT Applications

Watch as a web server authenticates or rejects a water filter sensor node and wifi enabled controller. This unique demonstration of MAXREFDES143 shows how authentication and data integrity can easily be added to an IoT ecosystem.

Pocket IO: The New Pathway to Industry 4.0

Get a close-up look at the functions and innovative devices that enable the Pocket IO to put the power of Industry 4.0 in your pocket.

Sneak Preview: Soccer Ball Factory

Get a glimpse of the Pocket IO in action in our Soccer Ball Testing and Personalization Factory, to be unveiled at electronica 2016.

Pocket IO PLC Development Platform Setup and Demo

Follow step by step instructions to get up and running with your Pocket IO. Review kit contents, make connections, download the Arduino IDE, and install the libraries. Walk through an example sketch and see how to run examples for each of the Pocket IO blocks. By the end of the video, you'll be ready to start programming your own custom applications.

VR Engagement Sensor Demo

Our engagement sensors use heart monitoring technology to gauge excitement, stress, and engagement.

The Pocket IO Controls a Fischertechnik Robot

Using a tablet as the control pad, watch the MAXREFDES150 Pocket IO work with the MAX14870 motor drivers and the MAX14890 encoder receivers to control a Fischertechnik robot as it selects and stacks a series of colored blocks in a precise pattern.

Heat Map Comparison of IO-Link Device Transceivers

See how the efficiency of our new generation MAX14827 IO-Link device transceiver compares to its predecessor and to a competitive device as shown on a FLIR heatmap display.

Meet the Health Sensor Platform

Learn about the MAXREFDES100 hSensor platform, a full reference design, development and demo platform for wearable applications. The extremely small form factor, including multiple sensors, power management, microcontroller and mbed support, allows you to rapidly prototype and demonstrate new wearable use cases.

Pocket IO Redefines the PLC for Industry 4.0

Learn how the MAXREFDES150 Pocket IO is 30% more efficient and 2½ times smaller than previous PLC platforms. The Pocket IO is a complete industrial platform equipped with 30 IOs featuring three different sensor inputs and motor controls for manufacturing or process automation applications.

Meet the Health Sensor Platform

See a Glimpse of the Future at electronica 2016

Watch the highlights from electronica 2016 where we demonstrated the factory of the future using the Pocket IO PLC Development Platform. Featured segments include a soccer ball testing and personalization factory, precision control of robots, and detection of goal throws with light curtains.

Take a Virtual Tour of the electronica 2016 Booth

Catch a virtual look at this year's dynamic trade show booth at electronic 2016. We showcased new products for Industry 4.0, Wearables, and Automotive applications, highlighting innovative solutions of the future.

Isolated Power-Supply Reference Designs Accelerate Prototyping

See how the MAXREFDES111-MAXREFDES116 24V isolated, industrial power-supply reference designs simplify design of isolated power supplies. These tested designs with pre-qualified Wurth transformers enable immediate board placement and prototyping. Each comes with tailored specifications including various output voltages, currents, and topologies to allow easy measurement with probes or design-in for prototypes. Each reference design has been tested for load and line regulation, efficiency, and transient performance.

Remote Tuner Technology for Automotive Radio

Overcome the challenges of automotive radio design. Learn how our remote tuner solution, based on the MAX2175 RF-to-Bits tuner and GMSL SerDes technology, reduces cost, improves performance and simplifies head unit design.

Blood Pressure Trending Demo

MAX8971EVKIT Board Photo

Evaluation System for the MAX8971 (Industry's Smallest 1.55A 1-Cell Li+ DC-DC Charger)

EE-Sim Webscope Waveform Viewer

Customize the display of EE-Sim simulation waveforms for optimal analysis. Configurable parameters include signal color, order, and grouping; axis scaling, placement, and synchronization; marker quantity and labels; auto and manual zoom; and formats for saving data.

EZ Setup of MAX17201/MAX17211 ModelGauge m5 Stand-Alone Fuel Gauges

See how to maximize run-time of your battery powered device without the need for battery characterization. In this video, the inventor of the ModelGauge™ algorithm walks you through the m5 EZ configuration wizard using the MAX17201/MAX17211 evaluation kit. Get up and running quickly and easily while maintaining high accuracy fuel gauge performance.

Get Started with the MAX32630FTHR Board

Find out how easy it is to configure the MAX32630FTHR board to build new projects. Learn how to import a project, compile a program, download code and execute a program with the MAX32630FTHR board. This video shows how to use the compiler and editor software feature of the ARM® mbed™ developer site with the development platform.

Using the MAXREFDES155 – Protecting the Internet of Things

Is your IoT system designed with the highest levels of security in place? Watch this video to learn how to protect your system from hackers by designing security in from the start with Maxim’s DeepCover® embedded security reference design.

The Heart of the System – DS2476 and DS28C36 (01:47)
Getting to know the MAXREFDES155 (02:30)
Authenticated Messages (04:34)
Authenticated Commands (05:32)
Bulk Data Transfer (06:24)

nanoPower Boost Converter Demo

Watch a demonstration of the extremely low quiescent current and true shutdown capabilities of our nanoPower boost converter using the MAX17222 evaluation kit. nanoPower regulators are ideal for wearable and hearable applications that require ultra-small size and high efficiency.

See MAX17222EVKIT ›

Sometimes it’s Smart to Have a Low IQ

How do you stretch battery life? It doesn’t take a genius.

EZ Setup of MAX17055 ModelGauge m5 Low IQ Stand-Alone Fuel Gauge

See how to maximize run-time of your battery powered device without the need for battery characterization. In this video, the inventor of the ModelGauge algorithm walks you through the m5 EZ configuration wizard using the MAX17055 evaluation kit.

Tour of New Search Features

Take a brief tour of the new features of Maxim's site search tool, designed to get you to the content you need, faster and easier. Let's get started!

Self Balancing Robot

Dallas Hackathon 2016

Safeguard Your Connected Products with Turnkey Security

Learn how to easily add a robust layer of security to new or existing designs with the MAXQ1061 DeepCover® Cryptographic Controller for Embedded Devices. As cyberattacks become more prevalent, designers are increasingly faced with the challenge of protecting their embedded devices against malicious attackers. See how the MAXQ1061 not only protects new embedded devices but can also be added to existing designs, while providing secure key and certificate storage, secure firmware, and secure communication.

SC2200 and SC1894 RF Power Amplifier Linearizers

Learn the key differences between the SC2200 and SC1894 RF Power Amplifier Linearizer (RFPAL) devices. They are ideal for cellular infrastructure applications including small cell, remote radio head (RRH), antenna array systems (AAS), MIMO, broadcast transmitters, and microwave backhaul.

Introduction to the MAX11192/95/98 12 Bit, 2Msps, Dual Simultaneous Sampling SAR ADC with Integrated Reference

This video provides an introduction to the MAX11192, MAX11195, and MAX11198, dual simultaneous sampling, 12-Bit, 2Msps ADCs with rntegrated reference.

Dual IO-Link Master Transceiver: MAX14819 Demo

Learn how the MAX14819 IO-Link master transceiver addresses key trends for industrial communications with over 50% lower power dissipation, robust communications in harsh environments, and a scalable, flexible architecture. See how easy it is to evaluate the MAX14819 using the MAXREFDES145 8-channel IO-Link master reference design as it communicates with an IO-Link proximity sensor.

MAX77714EVKIT Board Photo

Evaluation Kit for the MAX77714 (Complete System PMIC, Featuring 13 Regulators, 8 GPIOs, RTC, and Flexible Power Sequencing for Multicore Applications)

MAX32625MBED Board Photo

MAX32625MBED ARM mbed Enabled Development Platform for the MAX32625 (Ultra-Low-Power Arm Cortex-M4 with FPU-Based Microcontroller (MCU) with 512KB Flash and 160KB SRAM)

Understanding 4-20mA Data Transmission

Learn the core concepts behind 4-20mA data transmission, which is fundamental to the operation of loop-powered sensor transmitter devices.

Automotive Gesture Demo

Automotive Lighting Demo

Overcome the Challenges of Automotive Radio Design

Watch as we demonstrate our Automotive Remote Tuner technology designed to simplify automotive radio head unit design. Our remote tuner architecture reduces the amount of cabling required and places remote tuners in close proximity to antennas while reducing noise and lowering power consumption. The demo walks through a sample system setup and operation utilizing the unique radio architecture.

Increase Battery Life and Efficiency with PMICs at Less Than Half the Size

Take a closer look at the MAX77650 and MAX77651 ultra-low power PMICs. Their extremely low standby power supports longer battery life—ideal for wearables, hearables, and IoT devices. We demonstrate the devices' low quiescent current and show a 9% increase in overall system efficiency gained using the MAX77650 evaluation kit.

Introduction to the MAXM17532 4V to 42V, 100mA High Efficiency, DC-DC Step-Down Power Module with Integrated Inductor

This video provides an introduction to the MAXM17532, a 4V to 42V, 100mA High Efficiency, DC-DC Step-Down Power Module with Integrated Inductor.

Power Seminar: 24V+ Power Solutions--Power Design Doesn’t Get Any Cooler, Smaller, or Simpler

Introduction and agenda for the Power System Design Seminar series.

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Power Seminar Module 1: Introduction to Switching Regulators

Discussion of the concept and theory behind switching regulators and how they are used to build nonisolated power supplies.

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Power Seminar Module 2:  Introduction to Control Algorithms in Switching Regulators

An overview of how switching is controlled in switching regulators. Focuses on three popular control algorithms: constant on-time, voltage mode control and current-mode control.

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Power Seminar Module 3: Synchronous Switching Regulators

In-depth discussion of the operation of synchronous switching regulators, increasingly used to obtain higher power conversion efficiency.

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Power Seminar Module 4: Design of Filter Components

Highlights of some of the other components that make up a switch-mode power supply. Focuses on passive components such as inductors and capacitors.

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Power Seminar Module 5: Layout Considerations

PCB layout considerations:  layout differences can make a big impact on the performance of a power system design.

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Power Seminar Module 6: Example Design: Synchronous DC-DC Regulator Using the EE-Sim Design and Simulation Environment

Viral Vaidya, executive business manager for our industrial power solutions, walks through how to design a 24V+ power system using some of Maxim's latest synchronous switching regulators. Includes a demonstration of how to simulate the power system design using the online EE-Sim design and simulation environment.

High Speed Serial Links for Automotive Applications

In automotive applications, Maxim’s GMSL SerDes technology provides a compression-free alternative to Ethernet, delivering 10x faster data rates, 50% lower cabling costs, and better EMC compared to Ethernet. Maxim's GMSL chipsets drive 15 meters of coax or STP cabling thereby providing the margin required for robust and versatile designs. The links enable applications such as ADAS, Surround View, Digital Displays, Adaptive Cruise Control and more. This training gives an overview on the applications, introduces relevant Maxim GMSL chip sets and gives practical guidelines for successful design-in and measurements.

Power Seminar Module 7: Theory Behind Isolated DC-DC Solutions

Introduction to isolated DC-DC power supply design and the theory behind isolation.

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Power Seminar Module 8: Eliminating Optocouplers for Isolated DC-DC Designs

Introduction to the design of isolated power supplies without using optocouplers to bring secondary signals back to the primary enabling regulation.

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Power Seminar Module 9: Practical Design Considerations for an Iso-Buck Converter

How to design an iso-buck that implements an isolated power system without using an optocoupler.

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Power Seminar Module 10: Practical Design Considerations for a No-Opto Flyback Converter

How to design a no-opto flyback that implements an isolated power system without using an optocoupler.

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Power Seminar Module 11: Understanding System Protection

Overview of system protection and why the need for it is increasing.

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Power Seminar Module 12: Understanding Specifications of Protection ICs

A detailed look at some of the specifications that are important for a modern integrated protection IC.

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Learn how to complete a power supply design for wide input-voltage DC-DC converters using the EE-Sim Design and Simulation tool. Watch as we walk through how voltage regulators work, their key design considerations, and the procedures to follow in quickly designing, simulating, and comparing power designs. We also show the unique qualities of our Himalaya power module family, providing information on their system requirements and performance.

MAX20733EVKIT Board Photo

Evaluation Kit for the MAX20733 (Integrated, Step-Down Switching Regulator)

Monitor System Loads with Current-Sense Amps

Watch a demonstration of high-accuracy power monitoring using the MAX44298 evaluation kit. Learn how to add that extra bit of "analog hardware insurance" to your next design using current-sense amplifiers with very low offset error and very low gain error, for more robust and higher quality end products.

Introduction to the MAX30110-12 Optimized Pulse-Oximeters and Heart Rate AFE for Wearable Health

This video provides an introduction to the MAX30110-12, a Best-in-Class Optical Pulse Oximeter and Heart-Rate Sensor for Wearable Health.

Maxim Website Tour: eBriefs

eBriefs are interactive pdf summaries of key product information and resources. Learn the benefits of the eBrief and how to quickly find and share the one you need.

Introduction to the MAX14748 USB Type-C Charger

This video provides an introduction to the MAX14748, a USB Type-C Charger.

Summer of Love Contest Winner

Introduction to the MAX86140 Optical Pulse Oximeter and Heart-Rate Sensor

This video provides an introduction to the MAX86140, a Best-in-Class Optical Pulse Oximeter and Heart-Rate Sensor for Wearable Health.

How to Use the MAX32630FTHR with an OLED Display - Part 3

In this last installment in the series, Greg shows how easy it is to configure the Mbed™ libraries for the MAX32630FTHR board and OLED display. You’ll learn how to modify and customize the software for your needs.

How to Use the MAX32630FTHR with an OLED Display - Part 2

In this video, Greg shows how to load the software and Mbed™ libraries for the MAX32630FTHR board and guides you through each phase of the installation process. To learn more about how to configure the software for the MAX32630FTHR board, watch, "How to Use the MAX32630FTHR with an OLED Display - Part 3."

How to Use the MAX32630FTHR with an OLED Display - Part 1

Watch as Greg demonstrates how to drive a commonly available OLED display using the MAX32630FTHR application platform. In this first installment, he shows how to select and configure hardware components including peripherals and Adafruit feather boards. To learn how to load the software for the MAX32630FTHR board, watch, "How to Use the MAX32630FTHR with an OLED Display - Part 2."

Why Every Car Needs These High-Speed Serial Links

See why Gigabit Multimedia Serial Link (GMSL) SerDes technology provides the bandwidth needed to transport a burgeoning volume of multi-type data to enable sophisticated ADAS and infotainment capabilities in vehicles.

#### How to Derive More System Efficiency from Battery-Powered Designs

Video game controller

Buck controllers can support the efficiency and battery life requirements of portable electronics.

Demonstrating Cryptographic Hash, Signatures, and Authentication

Almost every piece of technology we use today has some kind of embedded firmware. Rogue firmware, however, can leak data and cause device malfunctions. Watch this video to see how you can use the MAXAUTHDEMO1 kit, featuring the DS28C36 DeepCover® secure authenticator, to easily and securely authenticate your design.

How to Extend I2C Lines Using the DS28E17 1-Wire-to-I2C Master

When trying to communicate with I2C over distances greater than two meters, several challenges may arise. Learn a method to extend I2C communication up to 100m using the 1-Wire® protocol and the DS28E17. For more information on this specific application, read: Extending I2C Communication Distance with the DS28E17.

How to Measure Temperature in Portable Projects I - Using the MAX31875 Temperature Sensor

In this video, Mohamed discusses different ways to add temperature measurement to his wearable electronics project. He evaluates the MAX31875 silicon-based temperature sensor, which measures <1mm2 and only consumes a few microamps. To see other ways of measuring temperature, watch the follow-up video, "How to Measure Temperature in Portable Projects II - Using the MAX17055 Fuel Gauge."

How to Set Up the MAXREFDES100 Health Sensor Platform (HSP)

In this video, Travis walks through the set-up of the MAXREFDES100 Health Sensor Platform and demonstrates how to use the software to examine data from the optical PPG sensor (MAX30101), a human body temperature sensor (MAX30205), and the ECG heart-rate sensor (MAX30003).

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How to Setup the DS1922 Thermochron with OneWireViewer

In this video, Maebh Coleman shows how to get the DS1922 iButton to communicate with a PC using the free software OneWireViewer.

How to Measure Temperature in Portable Projects II - Using the MAX17055 Fuel Gauge

In this follow-up video, Mohamed discusses a few more ways to add temperature measurement to wearable electronics projects. He evaluates the MAX17055 fuel gauge that has an internal temperature sensor and thermistor-driving interface. To see additional ways to measure temperature, watch the previous video, "How to Measure Temperature in Portable Projects I - Using the MAX31875 Temperature Sensor."

Using the MAX35104 Gas Flow Measurement Chip, Part 1: Evaluation Kit Setup

Accurately measuring gas flow using ultrasonic techniques can be tricky – you have to account for signal attenuation and turbulence in the medium. Learn how to configure a simple test bed for gas flow transducers using the MAX35104 Gas Flow Meter SoC evaluation kit. To learn how to configure the GUI for measurement of time-of-flight data, watch "Using the MAX35104 Gas Flow Measurement Chip, Part 2: Configuring Evaluation Kit Software."

Using the MAX35104 Gas Flow Measurement Chip, Part 2: Evaluation Kit Setup

Accurately measuring gas flow using ultrasonic techniques can be tricky – you have to account for signal attenuation and turbulence in the medium. Learn how to configure a simple test bed for gas flow transducers using the MAX35104 Gas Flow Meter SoC evaluation kit. To learn how to configure the GUI for measurement of time-of-flight data, watch "Using the MAX35104 Gas Flow Measurement Chip, Part 2: Configuring Evaluation Kit Software."

Using the MAX35104 Gas Flow Measurement Chip, Part 3: Evaluation Kit Setup

Accurately measuring gas flow using ultrasonic techniques can be tricky – you have to account for signal attenuation and turbulence in the medium. Learn how to configure a simple test bed for gas flow transducers using the MAX35104 Gas Flow Meter SoC evaluation kit. To learn how to configure the GUI for measurement of time-of-flight data, watch "Using the MAX35104 Gas Flow Measurement Chip, Part 2: Configuring Evaluation Kit Software."

Make High-Accuracy Biopotential and BioZ Measurements with MAX30001

Watch a demonstration of the MAX30001 Biopotential and Bioimpedance analog front-end as it performs ECG, respiration, heart rate and PACE detection while hooked up to our apps engineer. The easy-to-use GUI displays all waveforms captured by the low-power, high-sensitivity platform.

Wristband Health Monitoring Demo with MAX86141

Watch a step-by-step demonstration of how to setup the MAX86140/MAX86141 Pulse Oximeter and Heart-Rate Sensor evaluation kit using our wristband demo platform. See the photoplethysmography (PPG) signals displayed on the easy-to-use GUI as they are generated in real-time from the two photodiode readout channels.

ChipDNA–Defend Your IoT Designs from Hackers

Chances are, your IoT designs aren’t adequately protected from hackers. Watch this video to learn why hardware-based security offers better protection than its software-based counterpart. And see how Maxim’s DS28E38 DeepCover® secure authenticator with ChipDNA™ PUF technology offers the strongest protection against invasive attacks.

Say Hello to the MAX32625PICO Rapid Development Platform

Get ready for a revolutionary shift in how embedded systems are developed and deployed. The MBED™-compatible MAX32625PICO is an ultra-small yet powerful, complete development platform for the MAX32625 Arm® Cortex®-M4 microcontroller with FPU. You can also use the MAX32625PICO as a debug adapter or drop it directly onto your prototype as a component in a larger application.

How to Setup the DS28E38 Evaluation Kit and Perform ECDSA Authentication

The DS28E38 DeepCover® Secure Authenticator with ChipDNA PUF Protection lets you protect your designs using crypto-strong authentication secured with a Physically Unclonable Function. Learn how to setup the evaluation kit hardware and software and see a demonstration of ECDSA authentication, using the simple software GUI.

How to Set Up a SerDes Reverse Control Channel When PCLK is Not Available - Using the MAX96705/MAX96706 GMSL SerDes

Learn how to establish the I2C reverse control channel when PCLK is not available using the MAX96705 Gigabit Multimedia Serial Link (GMSL) serializer and MAX96706 GMSL deserializer.

How to Upload Firmware to the MAXREFDES100 Health Sensor Platform (HSP)

Learn how to upload example code to the MAXREFDES100 health sensor platform using the Mbed™ online compiler and get started with your own program. For information on how to set up the MAXREFDES100 HSP, watch the video, “How to Set Up the MAXREFDES100 Health Sensor Platform (HSP).”

How to Set Up an Ultra-Low-Power Real-Time Clock, Part I – Using the MAX32630 Microcontroller

In this video, Mohamed discusses different ways of keeping track of time using real-time clock (RTC) circuits. He demonstrates the required settings to get the internal RTC of the MAX32630 microcontroller up and running for a smartwatch project. To learn more about using the RTC with the microcontroller in deep sleep mode, watch, "How to Set Up an Ultra-Low-Power Real-Time Clock, Part II – With the Microcontroller in Deep Sleep."

Fast, Accurate Battery Management System for Safer EVs Using the MAX17843

Managing next-gen lithium-ion battery packs for hybrid and electric vehicles can be challenging. The MAX17843 delivers safe, accurate, and intelligent BMS operation while meeting stringent ASIL D requirements and saving up to 90% on isolation circuit BOM costs.

Introduction to the MAX14878-80 Isolated CAN Transceivers

This video provides an introduction to the MAX14878-80, 2.75kV and 5kV, isolated CAN transceivers with fault protection, that enable robust communications.

Introduction to the MAXM17574 DC-DC Step-Down Power Module with Integrated Inductor

This video provides an introduction to the MAXM17574, a 4.5-60V, 3A high-efficiency, DC-DC step-down power module with integrated inductor, enabling ease of design and small solution footprint.

Introduction to the MAX86150 Integrated Photoplethysmogram and Electrocardiogram Biosensor Module for Mobile Health

This video provides an introduction to the MAX86150, an integrated electrocardiogram, pulse oximeter, heart rate monitor sensor module. It includes internal LEDs, photodetectors, IR sensor and low-noise electronics with ambient light rejection.

Introduction to the MAX17557 Synchronous DC-DC Step-Down Controller

This video provides an introduction to the MAX17577, a 4.5-60V, wide input voltage synchronous DC-DC step-down controller, that enables design flexibility for industrial applications.

Introduction to the MAX17561-63 Adjustable Overvoltage and Overcurrent Protectors with High Accuracy

This video provides an introduction to the MAX17561-63, 4.5V to 36V, adjustable overvoltage and overcurrent protection ICs with integrated FETs and reverse current blocking.

Introduction to the MAX17761 High-Efficiency, Synchronous Step-Down DC-DC Converter

This video provides an introduction to the MAX17761, a 4.5V–76V, 1A, high-efficiency, synchronous step-down DC-DC converter with internal compensation, that enable high efficiency and low temperature rise.

Introduction to the MAX20067 TFT Bias Solution for Automotive Applications

This video provides an introduction to the MAX20067, an Automotive 3-channel display bias IC with VCOM buffer, level shifter, and I2C interface. This part provides an integrated power solution for TFT-LCD with synchronous boost, gate-shading, and I2C.

Introduction to the MAX20037-38 Automotive Buck Converters

This video provides an introduction to the MAX20037-38, Automotive 3.5A synchronous USB buck converters with I2C and protection/host charge emulator.

How to Record a Temperature-Logging Mission with the DS1922L

Watch as Maebh outlines the step-by-step process for recording a temperature-logging mission using the DS1922L iButton® temperature logger and the OneWireViewer software.  Learn how to navigate the OneWireViewer's interface to collect, measure, and save temperature data using the DS1922L.

Learn more about the process behind analog-to-digital conversion and the important specifications and criteria to consider when selecting and designing with an ADC.

How to Get Started with Power-over-Ethernet with MAX5969B and MAX5971B

In this video, Darragh demonstrates power delivery over a Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) system using the MAX5969B powered device (PD) controller and the MAX5971B power sourcing equipment (PSE).

How to Measure Temperature with a Thermocouple Using the MAX31856

Thermocouples are a great way to measure temperatures that vary over a wide range. In this video, Mohamed explains how thermocouples work and demonstrates a quick and easy way to get started reading temperature from a thermocouple using the MAX31856.

Learn the Fundamentals of Op Amps

Learn the fundamentals of one of the essential building blocks of analog circuits, the operational amplifier. Understand the important criteria and key specifications to consider when selecting op amps for many applications from consumer to industrial uses.

Overview of Voltage References and Supervisors

In this video, understand the important aspects of voltage references and the key criteria in selecting the right one for your design. Also learn about voltage supervisors, the different types of supervisory products available and their key features.

How to Optimize Light-Load Performance of Himalaya Step-Down Switching Regulators using the MAX17503EVKITB

In this video, Furqan describes the different modes of operation available in the Himalaya family of step-down switching regulators using the MAX17503EVKITB. Learn the advantages and trade-offs of pulse-width modulation (PWM), pulse-frequency modulation (PFM), and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) when operating with small load currents.

Using the Peripheral Management Unit – Part 3: What’s in a Descriptor?

In this third installment, examine each of the eight peripheral management unit (PMU) instructions – also known as descriptors – and learn how they are used in simple programs to transfer data. In “Using the Peripheral Management Unit–Part 4,” we’ll go into the lab to build a program to demonstrate how the PMU can automate some tasks while the CPU sleeps.

Using the Peripheral Management Unit – Part 4: A PMU Program

In this video, learn how to use the demo project to blink the LEDs using the PMU and the real-time clock (RTC). The principles gained in this video will help you build your own PMU program for your next project. In the next video, “Using the Peripheral Management Unit–Part 5,” you’ll see how the main() program sets up and uses the PMU on the MAX32630 Evaluation Kit.

Using the Peripheral Management Unit – Part 1: What is the PMU?

In this first video of a five-part series, learn about Maxim’s exclusive peripheral management unit (or PMU) and how it offloads the CPU core to extend the battery life of applications. In the next video, “Using the Peripheral Management Unit–Part 2,” we’ll examine how the PMU works and how to set it up.

Using the Peripheral Management Unit – Part 2: The Setup

In this next video of the series, take a closer look at how to configure Maxim’s peripheral management unit (PMU). Only three registers – a configuration register, a descriptor address register, and a loop counter – need to be programmed in each channel to setup the PMU. In the next video, “Using the Peripheral Management Unit–Part 3,” we’ll examine each of the PMU descriptors in detail.

Using the Peripheral Management Unit – Part 5: Putting It All Together

In this last installment of our video series, examine the main() program as we pull all the pieces together. Watch the demo program run on the MAX32630 Evaluation Kit to see how the PMU can run tasks to offload the main CPU.