Pressure Sensing

Description

Force, pressure, and stress are generally all grouped into the same measurement category. There are subtle differences: force is a push or pull upon an object from another object, stress is a result of force applied to an object per unit area that causes a deformation, and pressure is a type of stress normally associated with a force applied by a gas or liquid. We won't get into deep physics here; the design considerations, circuits, and block diagram pages focus on how to process a signal from a transducer that responds to different types of forces applied to solids, liquids, or gasses and how to select a signal chain for the application.

Please click the "design considerations", "circuits", and "block diagrams" tabs above for information that will help you build your design.

 

The need to measure force generally arises in order to keep a system either under control or alternatively, in one piece. For example, a steam boiler made with a certain thickness of steel plate can resist a certain amount of pressure. If the pressure exceeds the material's threshold the boiler will rupture or explode. By measuring and monitoring the pressure within the boiler, certain controls can be added to the boiler, like a relief valve or signal that reduces the heat applied to the boiler in order to avoid a catastrophic event. Pressure transducers are used to measure this type of force. Another example: a bridge doesn't move, usually, but it is subject to forces due to weather (wind and temperature differentials) and load (weight of the structure and vehicles traversing the bridge). These conditions cause stress within the materials, and if the materials receive stress beyond what they are capable of handling the material can tear apart. Strain gauges are used to measure these forces and can determine if a structure is abnormally deforming so action can be taken before a failure occurs.

Signal Chain Functions and Operation


The accurate measurement of force, pressure, and stress requires a transducer or sensor capable of providing a signal that reflects the force, pressure, or stress that a measured object is experiencing. The ideal transducer provides a linear output – an output that increases linearly with increasing pressure or stress, and subsequently decreases linearly as the pressure or stress decreases. Most transducers however operate with some degree of non-linearity. For accurate measurements the signal usually must be linearized within the input circuitry.

Most force sensing transducers provide an output signal level that is very low, in the sub millivolt to tens of millivolts range. This range is similar in magnitude to the electrical noise within an environment. So circuitry must be designed to amplify the signal while filtering or rejecting noise. Fortunately the measurement of force does not require exceptionally high sampling rates, making filtering easier. Most signal chains are designed to meet an accuracy objective which includes low drift in time and with temperature changes. The circuitry must provide exceptional reliability.

Most pressure or force transducers take the electrical form of a Wheatstone bridge:

Figure 1. Wheatstone bridge diagram
Figure 1. Wheatstone bridge diagram

A Wheatstone bridge circuit, once balanced, outputs a voltage proportional to the change in resistance of one or more of the resistors within the bridge. A strain gauge or MEMS transducer is essentially a variable resistor and when used for measuring force is placed into a Wheatstone bridge circuit either with other strain gauges or other precision resistors so that the bridge is nulled. When one or more of the strain gauges experiences stress or deformation, a voltage appears on the bridge output.

The purpose of the signal chain is to accurately bring a very small analog signal to digital. To do this, the sensor signal chain performs the following functions:

1. Transducer excitation

Accurate and stable voltage or current sources with low-temperature drift are required for sensor excitation. To easily eliminate effects of reference voltage tolerance, it is common practice to use the same reference for both the sensor excitation and the analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This makes the signals ratiometric, eliminating first-order tolerances allowing the use of less accurate references, or alternately providing higher performance from a given reference.

2. Signal amplification

In many designs the transducer's output full scale range will be very low (e.g., 20mV), while the input full scale range of ADC is much wider (e.g., 2V). In such cases, the transducer's output signal must be amplified to match the input range of the ADC before it is converted by the ADC to digital.

3. Filtering

The bandwidth of the sensor transducer signal is generally narrow and the sensitivity to noise is high. It is, therefore, useful to limit the signal bandwidth by filtering to reduce the total noise. Filtering is usually accomplished using a passive filter.

4. Analog to digital conversion

This process involves accurately converting the analog signal into digital without introducing any artifacts or abnormalities during the conversion. Two primary converter architectures that are used in sensor signal chains are: SAR and Delta Sigma. Delta Sigma converters provide a good combination of low power, high resolution (up to 24-bit) and digital signal processing at low sampling rate. This meets the requirement for many sensors with low bandwidth signal. A fast SAR ADC provides a good combination of low power, medium/high resolution (up to 20-bit), fast settling time and no latency. This might be more appropriate when fast acquisition or many channels are being multiplexed into one ADC.

5. Linearization

Some sensors have a non-linear output. If the sensor output characteristic is well known and repeatable, the output can be linearized thereby increasing the accuracy of the design. These days generally digital linearization is more cost effective and more flexible. Digital linearization uses a lookup table after the signal is digitized to provide a correct linearized value for each output code from the ADC. Some more complex solutions may also require the use of digital signal processing (DSP) techniques for signal manipulation, error compensation, gain, and filtering depending on the transducer and the degree of accuracy required.

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Physical Elements of the Signal Chain


The design engineer who needs to measure a force usually starts with a signal chain that encompasses:

  1. Input multiplexor to handle multiple signals in one chain.
  2. One or more op amps for amplification and filtering.
  3. An analog-to-digital converter.
  4. One or more voltage references
  5. A microcontroller for digital signal processing and communications.

While custom signal chains can be designed to meet exact performance and cost needs, it is also possible that a modern, highly integrated single chip AFE product might fit the design parameters, especially if the design is for a mainstream application. At a minimum, AFE ICs integrate an ADC and a programmable-gain amplifier. See the section below "Highly integrated Signal Chains" for more information

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Specifying a Custom Signal Chain


The engineer's main task is to specify a signal chain that will reliably provide the signal measurements within the specified uncertainty range while also meeting cost constraints. There are many available performance tradeoffs especially when cost is a factor.

For the sensor signal chain, the quality of measurement is taken in account by:

  • Accuracy or systematic error
  • Precision or random error

Systematic error sources can be classified into three main categories:

  • Gain error
  • Offset error
  • Linearity error

Precision or random error sources include:

  • Quantization Noise
  • Thermal noise
  • Shot Noise
  • Flicker noise

The total error in the system is the combination of both error types.  Generally speaking each error type contributes about half of the total error, so to improve the quality of the measurements provided by the signal chain; the individual components should be chosen and configured to minimize both error types.

Let's review primary selection criteria for each element in a custom signal chain.

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Selecting an ADC


The most basic parameters involved in selecting an ADC are:

  1. Channels required
  2. Sampling rate
  3. Nominal resolution

Channels Required

Most ADCs provide one input channel but some products also integrate a multiplexor function to provide multi-input functionality.

Sampling rate:

Sampling rate for sensor applications is generally considered to be fairly low from a technology standpoint. Usually 50 samples a second will work, so multiply this by the number of channels being serviced by the same ADC to get your required sampling rate. Today's ADC technology provides much greater sampling rates in most cases, even when cost is a primary factor.

Resolution:

The resolution of an ADC is the number of steps, or divisions, that the ADC can divide the maximum input voltage into. For example a 12-bit ADC can provide 212 or 4096 divisions and a 16-bit ADC can provide 216 or 65536 divisions.

The resolution provided by the 2n formula is the ideal resolution and most ADCs usually don't meet this ideal resolution due to physical factors, most importantly thermal noise generated by the device and the signal chain. Some ADCs will provide a "noise-free resolution" spec. Use this specification as the converter's resolution to remove effects of noise.

As an example, if building a postage weigh scale, and the spec is to accurately measure to the nearest tenth of an ounce over a 10 pound range, you'll need an ADC capable of providing a minimum of 1,600 divisions, but to get repeatable accuracy to take into account thermal noise, other converter noise, and other signal chain errors, you'll usually multiply this value by 10, so for this application, 16,000 divisions. In this application a 16-bit ADC could most likely provide the needed resolution, if the input provided by the transducer is close to the converter's input range.

A typical 16-bit ADC that has an input (full scale) range of 3 Volts can resolve input divisions of 3/216 or 46 µVolts. If the maximum input signal can only reach 1V, due to an amplification limitation, the maximum number of divisions that the ADC will be able to detect is 1/3 of the max, or about 22,000 divisions. This would still be good enough to meet the postage scale example specs.

Thermal Noise effect on Resolution

Because of the noise errors accumulated within an ADC actual output codes generated by an ADC are never a single value. They are a range of values represented by histogram having an approximate Gaussian distribution. To ensure that the ADC will provide the needed resolution for the input voltage range it is a good idea to calculate the number noise free input divisions that the converter can provide (if it hasn't been provided in the product specification).

Statistics tells us that with Gaussian curves, 99% of the values output will fall within 6.6 sigma of the mean value, with the mean value centered on the most probable or expected division.

Figure 2. Noise free range illustrated
Figure 2. Noise free range illustrated

To help calculate this value most ADCs contain a parameter called VRMS Noise. Find this value on the datasheet. Multiply it by 6.6 to get the minimum noise free step in terms of Voltage that the converter can provide. Then take the input range and divide it by the minimum noise free step to get the noise free resolution. If this number is more than the number of divisions required in the application then the selected ADC should fit. If not, and it is not possible to further amplify the input from the sensor element, look for an ADC with a lower VRMS Noise specification. Here's an example:

The MAX11205 16-bit ADC provides a thermal noise specification of: 720nVRMS Noise

With an amplified sensor voltage input of 1 Volt, the number of noise free input divisions that the ADC can provide is:

            1 / (.00000720 x 6.6) = 213,000

The MAX11205 has an exceptionally low VRMS Noise specification, and so it can easily provide the noise free resolution that the above application requires.

Alternate phrasing for specifications involving the calculation of noise free resolution include: noise-free counts or codes inside the range.

Most high-precision ADC data sheets specify thermal noise as input referred noise and provide the specification in RMS noise or peak-to-peak noise. Sigma Delta converter data sheets typically report input referred noise or peak-to-peak noise vs. data rate output. The input referred noise is typically measured with input shorted and the noise is calculated from noise histogram plots.

Single or double ended inputs

ADC ICs are available with single-ended or differential inputs. For designs that require high precision and sensing of very low input voltage changes, an ADC with differential inputs is recommended. The differential input provides the best noise rejection, and wider dynamic range compared to a single-ended input. See application note 1108, "Understanding Single-Ended, Pseudo-Differential and Fully-Differential ADC Inputs", to obtain a more in-depth understanding.

INL – Integral Non-Linearity

In designs that require lower resolution ADCs, such as 10-bit through 16-bit converters, the INL parameter is a key parameter in determining the accuracy of the device. INL error is described as the deviation, in LSB or percent of full-scale range (FSR), of an actual transfer function from a straight line. All else being equal choose the ADC with a lower INL parameter in order to select the ADC that will provide the best accuracy. See application note 283, "INL/DNL Measurements for High-Speed Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs)", for a more in-depth understanding.

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Selecting an Op Amp


The function of the op amp in a signal chain is to amplify the output of the transducer in a linear fashion so that the maximum transducer output approximately matches the input range of the ADC. This acts to maximize the resolution of the signal chain.

Most load cells will provide a "span" or "sensitivity" specification that provides the maximum change of the cell's output for every Volt of excitation. Common ranges for load cells are 2mV/V to 20mV/V. Typically excitation voltages range from 3V to 5V. With this, the maximum output provided by transducers of this type can range from 10mV to 100mV, a fairly wide range but very dependent on the selected transducer.

The amplifier should convert this range to the maximum input range that the ADC can accommodate. Typically the ADC has a useable input range of from 2.5V to 3.3V. So the input amplifier might have to provide gains of 50 to 200 depending on the application.

The input op amp needs to amplify signals that are in the microvolt and millivolt range, the same range as naturally occurring noise. It is important that this circuit is selected properly and also laid out properly to prevent the amplification step from introducing errors. Look for low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) with extremely low offset voltage (VOS), low temperature, and offset drifts for this application.

In most small signal designs a low noise "auto-zero" op amp is the preferred op amp type. This will minimize the offset error potential in your signal chain. The MAX44246 is an example of this type of op amp. The diagram below shows a typical op amp deployment. Note the use of dual single ended op amps in lieu of an instrumentation amplifier. This approach provides better results when used with differential input ADCs.

Figure 3. Typical Op Amp deployment within a pressure sensing signal chain
Figure 3. Typical Op Amp deployment within a pressure sensing signal chain

Tip: Most pressure transducers take the form of a Wheatstone bridge. Please see application note 3426, "Resistive Bridge Basics: Part One", for in-depth information about working with Wheatstone bridge circuits.

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Selecting a Multiplexor


When selecting a multiplexor the design engineer primarily needs to know the basics: the number of input channels. In addition, the multiplexor must be able to accommodate the full input voltage range. In addition make sure the switching speed is fast enough for the application. Generally the product with the lowest "on" resistance that meets your cost goals is the best.

Tip: Learn about "Beyond-the-Rails" multiplexors and ADCs

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Selecting a Reference


The voltage reference provides a known voltage level at a high precision. Any deviation of the stated reference level can induce error into the system. For the sensor measurement application, the output of the reference is used as an input to the ADC or AFE and also as excitation to the transducer. This way if the reference voltage varies due to noise or other anomaly, both the sensor input and ADC experiences the same variance, reducing the total error.

The voltage reference contributes to systematic and random error. The reference noise source degrades the noise performance of the ADC. So a reference with better performance than the ADC should be chosen. The reference's initial error and drift over temperature and time for a high precision system is one of the most important contributors of gain error. For systems that are calibrated, the drift over temperature and time is the most critical parameter.

Key parameters in selecting a reference include: load drive, initial accuracy, noise, temperature drift, and stability. The load drive in a pressure sensor application can be higher than in many other applications due to the need to drive the transducer. Transducer load can be in the range of 10 to 20 milliamps for a typical pressure transducer in addition to that required by the ADC.

The MAX6325/MAX6341/MAX6350 are low-noise, precision voltage references with extremely low, 0.5ppm/°C, typical temperature coefficients and excellent, ±0.02% initial accuracy. These references are recommended for signal chains with ADCs of 16-bit resolution and up.

For more in-depth information on selecting voltage references, please see this application note:

Application Note 2879: "Selecting the Optimum Voltage Reference"

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Correcting Errors


Achieving accuracy in an application means having to be able to correct for linearization errors, component offset errors, and system noise.

As you work through the math required to calculate the operating voltages of the circuit, rounding, and measuring tolerances can quickly cause errors to build up.

For example, linearity of the devices from the load cell through the op amp and ADC will add error into the design. Fortunately today it is very easy to correct errors through digital linearization. Essentially this process uses a lookup table that provides the ideally expected digital output for every actual digital output received. The key to digital linearization is that it can remove errors that are repeatable.

Errors due to minor differences between component values used on individual circuits have to be calibrated out; usually this is a one-time adjustment. Errors due to noise have to be averaged out by taking multiple readings and presenting an average reading as the final output – ADCs that employ the delta-sigma algorithm have this type of averaging built-in.

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Highly integrated Signal Chains


Many signal chain applications can be implemented with a highly integrated AFE chip. The benefit of using a single chip or integrated signal chain IC is that it makes the design much easier, reducing component selection time, layout, and troubleshooting, while also generally providing improved specifications for an application. The integration of the input op amp with the ADC on a single chip can provide much better total system performance. The tradeoff in using this approach might be less optimization from a cost standpoint.

At a minimum, an integrated signal chain IC will include a programmable gain op amp and an ADC. Some AFE ICs also provide an input multiplexor for implementing 1 to 4 channels. The output of an AFE is traditionally serial digital with I2C and SPI being favored interface standards.

Selecting an integrated AFE is much the same as selecting a discrete signal chain, though fewer design options will be available. For example amplifier gain may be limited, and you'll most likely have to over-specify some parameters to get the overall desired performance.

Just like selecting a discrete signal chain, when choosing an AFE (for example PGA + ADC), after selecting the number of channels required, sampling rate and the nominal resolution, it is again important to carefully evaluate the specifications that have the most impact on systematic and random error (those that have the most effect on accuracy and precision). For the most part, this is thermal noise and noise free resolution.

Noise performance specifications and terms like noise-free range or effective resolution that indicate how well an AFE can distinguish a fixed input level are reported typically in the datasheets. Alternate phrasing for these applications might be noise-free counts or codes inside the range.

For thermal noise, most high-precision AFE data sheets specify input referred noise, in terms of RMS noise or peak-to-peak noise. The input referred noise is typically measured with input shorted and the noise is calculated from noise histogram plots. AFE data sheets that use Sigma Delta converters with a PGA typically report input referred noise or peak-to-peak noise in a table vs. data rate output and PGA gain.

Examples of integrated signal chain products from Maxim that are optimal for use in pressure sensor applications include: the MAX1415, a two channel 16 bit ADC with integrated PGA; and the MAX11270, a high end 24-bit ADC with PGA.

For further information:

Click on the Circuits tab to view IC circuit examples.

Click on the block diagram tab to view selected sensor related end products to view available and recommended Maxim products for by function.

Additional design information is available in the application notes referenced within this page and also listed under "Tech Docs."

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Learn how to establish the I2C reverse control channel when PCLK is not available using the MAX96705 Gigabit Multimedia Serial Link (GMSL) serializer and MAX96706 GMSL deserializer.

Also see: How do I program the remote side of a SerDes link when PCLK is not present?

Learn more: MAX96705 16-Bit GMSL Serializer ›

Learn more: MAX96706 14-Bit GMSL Deserializer ›

Automotive displays

Bigger, sharper automotive displays benefit from highly integrated power management ICs.

MAXREFDES103#

The MAXREFDES103# is a full wrist-worn wearable reference design for heart-rate, heart-rate variability, and SpO2 measurements.

Introduction to the MAX17634A, MAX17634B and MAX17634C 4.5V to 36V, 4.25A, High-Efficiency, Synchronous Step-Down DC-DC Converter

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's 4.5V to 36V, 4.25A, High-Efficiency, Synchronous Step-Down DC-DC Converter - the MAX17634A, MAX17634B and MAX17634C.

Kingston A2000 SSD

The Kingston A2000 SSD delivers fast, reliable performance for laptops.

LynQ people compass

The LynQ device creates a private network to help users find one another.

Sublue WhiteShark Mix underwater scooter

Sublue’s WhiteShark Mix underwater scooter propels users underwater, in pools or in the ocean.

Sublue WhiteShark Mix underwater scooter

Explore the ocean with Sublue’s WhiteShark Mix underwater scooter.

Ricoh Imaging Theta SC2 360° camera

The Theta SC2 360° camera creates still or video images that you can rotate around.

Miracle-Gro Twelve

The Miracle-Gro Twelve Indoor Growing System is a smart hydroponic garden for growing herbs and vegetables inside.

Blood-Pressure Monitoring Smartwatch

Smartwatches and other wearables deliver accurate, continuous monitoring of blood pressure for better preventive health measures and disease management.

Advancing Digital TV Technologies

 

"Our DVB-C modulators based on the MAX5862 and MAX5868 integrate 32 channels on a single board and up to 96 channels in a single chassis."
 -Mr. Gang Ma, General Manager, R&D, Gospell Digital Technology


Featured products: MAX5862, MAX5868

Read Their Story ›

Introduction to the MAX22700E/D, MAX22701E/D and MAX22702E/D Ultra-High CMTI Isolated Gate Drivers

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's Ultra-High CMTI Isolated Gate Drivers - the MAX22700E/D, MAX22701E/D and MAX22702E/D.

Introduction to the MAX17576 4.5V to 60V, 4A, High-Efficiency, Synchronous Step-Down DC-DC Converter with Internal Compensation

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's 4.5V to 60V, 4A, High-Efficiency, Synchronous Step-Down DC-DC Converter with Internal Compensation - the MAX17576.

PMIC Streamlines Automotive TFT-LCD Display Design

 

PMIC Streamlines Automotive TFT-LCD Display Design
TFT-LCD displays dominate the automotive market as they enter a competitive phase with rivaling technologies. In this phase, they can still be highly competitive by achieving higher efficiencies and higher integration in their design. In this design solution, we review a typical, non-integrated TFT-LCD display system and compare it to a highly integrated approach highlighting the latter advantages in terms of BOM and PCB size reduction. With a highly integrated approach, the entire power management system can be implemented with just two ICs, achieving higher competitiveness vs. emerging technologies.

Featured parts: MAX16923, MAX20069
Read more ›

Evaluation Kit for Octal Digital Output with SafeDemag

MAX14912EVKIT

Octal HS or push-pull, SafeDemag surge protection with integrated diagnostics and LED matrix.

Learn more ›

Evaluation Kit for Single-Channel Configurable DIO IC

MAX14914EVKIT

The only fully software-configurable DIO push-pull, fast, and surge protection product with SafeDemag.

Learn more ›

Evaluation Kit for Octal Digital Input for Type 1, 3, and 2 Inputs

MAX22190EVKIT

Fully IEC61131-2-compliant octal digital input with wire-break detection, integrated diagnostics, and LED matrix.

Learn more ›

Wireless and wired battery management systems

Compared to its wired counterpart, a wireless battery management system reduces weight and manufacturing complexity.

Wireless battery management system diagram

Maxim’s CES wireless BMS demo compares a wired and wireless BMS solution based on an ISM-band radio.

Wireless Battery Management System

In Maxim’s wireless BMS demo, the wireless architecture features an RF gateway client that acts as a central controller and BMS secondary nodes that communicate data wirelessly back to the gateway.

High CMTI Isolated Gate Driver

The MAX22700D/MAX22702D isolated gate drivers with high CMTI and low propagation delay skew increase efficiency.

Half-bridge push-pull circuit

In a half-bridge push-pull circuit, both switches should not be on at the same time, as this would lead to a short circuit condition.

Isolated Power Converter Circuit

Circuit with galvanically isolated low-voltage microcontroller.

How to Use the MAX745 as a Maximum Power Point Tracker Solar Charger

Sean explains a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) solar charger and how it is used to optimize the efficiency of a solar panel. He then demonstrates how the MAX745 switch-mode lithium-ion battery charger can be used as an MPPT solar charger.

Learn more: MAX745 ›

Improve Automotive Exterior LED Lighting with Buck-Boost Average Current Control

 

Improve Automotive Exterior LED Lighting with Buck-Boost Average Current Control
Implementing high-power automotive LED exterior lighting poses challenges in terms of switching losses, which affect power efficiency and accurate current control, which affects the LED color and brightness. This article introduces a new LED controller IC, which, thanks to smooth buck-boost operation, minimizes system complexity and losses while its average current control enhances transient response, preserving LED color and brightness.

Featured parts: MAX25600
Read more ›

How to Optimize the Efficiency Performance of a Flyback Converter Using the MAX17606

Furqan explains why a discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) flyback converter, using a secondary-side rectification diode, is unsuitable for low-voltage high-current applications. He then proposes a high-efficiency solution where a MOSFET, controlled by the MAX17606 synchronous MOSFET driver, replaces the secondary-side diode.

Learn more: MAX17606 ›

Triple Punch Extends the Life of Your Smart Factory Indoor BLE Beacon

 

Triple Punch Extends the Life of Your Smart Factory Indoor BLE Beacon
Artificial intelligence-driven smart factories rely on tracking devices to manage their workflow. See how MAX17222 nanoPower, an efficient voltage regulator boost converter with low shutdown and low quiescent current, helps a smart-factory indoor BLE beacon last two years on a single battery.

Featured parts: MAX17220, MAX172222, MAX17225
Read more ›

Object identification application

New ICs are needed to bring intelligence to the edge for applications such as machine learning.

Evaluation Kit for the MAXM17624 3.3V Output-Voltage Application

MAXM17624EVKIT

The MAXM17624 3.3V output evaluation kit (EV kit) provides a proven design to evaluate the MAXM17624 high frequency, high-efficiency, synchronous step-down DC-DC power module.

Learn more ›

Mouth-Based Biometrics Monitoring

 

"The Maxim chips performed beautifully when we used them. It really has become a standard with many companies."
 -Mike Saigh, CEO, Equine SmartBits


Featured products: MAX30102, MAX32664, MAX30205, MAX8808X, MAX40200, MAX8902, MAX6775

Read Their Story ›

Automotive DeepCover Secure Authenticators Stop Counterfeit Parts

Counterfeit after-market automotive parts can ruin the ADAS driving experience. Our DeepCover® secure authenticators, such as the DS28C40, make it impossible for third-party manufacturers to clone critical components for after-market auto repairs.

Learn more: DS28C40 ›

Salesforce Tower at dusk

The Salesforce Tower in San Francisco exemplifies use of modern building automation technologies.

Salesforce Office

Heating, plumbing and other electrical systems inside the Salesforce Tower are controlled via building automation technologies.

Salesforce Tower

Automation technologies inside the Salesforce Tower are making the building more environmentally friendly and, for occupants, comfortable and convenient.

Introduction to the MAX25600 Synchronous High Voltage 4 Switch Buck Boost LED Controller

This video provides an introduction to the MAX25600, a synchronous 4-switch buck-boost LED driver controller.

Blood Pressure Monitoring from Smartphone

An integrated bio-algorithm sensor hub like the MAX32664 accelerates the development cycle for health-monitoring wearables.

Introduction to the MAX17613A MAX17613B MAX17613C 4.5V to 60V, 3A Current Limiter with OV, UV, and Reverse Protection

This video provides an introduction to the MAX17613A MAX17613B MAX17613C, a 4.5V to 60V, 3A Current Limiter with OV, UV, and reverse protection.

Introduction to the MAX77863 Complete System PMIC, Featuring 13 Regulators, 8 GPIOs, RTCD, and Flexible Power Sequencing for Multicore Applications

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's Complete System PMIC, Featuring 13 Regulators, 8 GPIOs, RTCD, and Flexible Power Sequencing for Multicore Applications - the MAX77863.

Evaluation kit for the DS2484

DS2484EVKIT

DS2484 Converts I2C slave to 1-Wire master. Independent and flexible I2C and 1-Wire operating voltage, user programmable 1-Wire timing.

Learn more ›

1-Wire socket boards

DS9120

Designed for use with the DS2484EVKIT and 1-Wire PC adapters such as DS9490R.

Learn more ›

1-Wire device programmer

DS9488-GP8

Simultaneously programs up to eight 1-Wire devices.

Learn more ›

Introduction to the MAX20336 Ultra-Small, Low-RON, Beyond-the-Rails DPST Analog Switches

This video provides an introduction to the MAX20336, an ultra-small, low-on-resistance, double-pole/single-throw analog switches which features Beyond-the-Rails™ capability that allows signals from -5.5V to +5.5V to pass without distortion, even when the power supply is below the signal range.

GSEE-Tech analog input module

GSEE-Tech used the MAX11270 to meet the performance and size requirements of its new analog input module.

Existing Bus/Taxi Surveillance Application

Since the MAX38888 has 2% regulation accuracy and is a bidirectional system, a buck converter and linear charging aren’t required in this bus/taxi surveillance system when rearchitected with the MAX38888 reversible buck/boost regulator.

Bus/Taxi Surveillance Application with MAX38888

Since the MAX38888 has 2% regulation accuracy and is a bidirectional system, a buck converter and linear charging aren’t required in this bus/taxi surveillance system when rearchitected with the MAX38888 reversible buck/boost regulator.

Portable barcode scanner

Supercapacitors are ideal for backup power in applications such as portable barcode scanners.

Introduction to the MAX16972 and MAX16972A 3A Automotive Hi-Speed USB Protectors with Apple iPhone/iPad and USB 2.0 Charge Detection

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's 3A Automotive Hi-Speed USB Protectors with Apple iPhone/iPad and USB 2.0 Charge Detection - the MAX16972 and MAX16972A.

MAXREFDES1177 reference design with ECAD files

Reference designs with ECAD files, like MAXREFDES1177, can help accelerate your circuit design process.

Ultra-High CMTI Isolated Gate Driver

MAX22701E

Features single-ended input with Miller clamp output.

Learn more ›

Ultra-High CMTI Isolated Gate Drivers Evaluation Kit

MAX22701EVKIT

Includes two identical ICs for measurement of part-to-part propagation delay matching.

Learn more ›

Introduction to the MAX14916 Compact Industrial Octal 1A/Quad 2A High-Side Switch with Diagnostics

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's Compact Industrial Octal 1A/Quad 2A High-Side Switch with Diagnostics - the MAX14916.

Introduction to the MAX20056B Integrated, 6-Channel High-Brightness LED Driver with Very Wide PWM Dimming Ratio and Phase Shifting for Automotive Displays

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's Integrated, 6-Channel High-Brightness LED Driver with Very Wide PWM Dimming Ratio and Phase Shifting for Automotive Displays - the MAX20056B.

14-Channel High-Voltage Data-Acquisition System

MAX17853

Achieves ASIL-D compliance using a single chip for mid-to-large cell count configurations.

12-Channel, High-Voltage Data-Acquisition Systems

MAX17823H

Manages high-voltage battery modules and features a 12-bit SAR ADC that measures 12 cell voltages and two temperatures.

Learn more ›

Getting Started with Hall-Effect Sensors Using the MAX9921

Jesvin explains the hall effect and how hall-effect sensors can be useful in applications that require contactless sensors such as an automatic door opener. He then demonstrates the MAX9921, which is the industry’s first two-wire hall-effect sensor.

Learn More: MAX9921 ›

GTI NuSeis seismic recording technology

GTI uses Maxim analog ICs in its precise, power-efficient seismic recording technology.

Introduction to the MAX22515 IO-Link Transceiver with Integrated Protection

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's IO-Link Transceiver with Integrated Protection - the MAX22515.

Accelerate Your Design with the MAX5715BOB DAC Breakout Board

David and Kyle present the latest development tool, the ultra-small MAX5715BOB digital-to-analog converter (DAC) breakout board. You’ll learn how to set up the Arduino®- and Mbed®-compatible platform and discover how to customize the Mbed firmware to your own design, saving valuable time on your next project.

Learn More: MAX5715BOB ›

Electronic Toys

With smart audio amplifiers, products featuring micro speakers, such as electronic days, can deliver better sound quality.

Healthcare Wearables

Healthcare wearables could become more integral to overall patient care as doctors come to trust the devices and the data.

Pumpkin Pi Halloween Jack-o-Lantern

Connected jack-o’-lantern comes to life thanks to IoT platform.

The MAX30208 10-pin thin LGA package

Smart Speaker

Getting great audio quality from micro speakers calls for a smart amplifier with Dynamic Speaker Management technology.

Stressed Integrated Circuit Engineer

Guitar

The Ziviz Jamstik electric guitar allows guitarists to produce and record music seamlessly with MIDI.

Electric Vehicle

Electric vehicle battery packs rely on advanced battery management systems for greater safety.

Smartphones

nanoPower comparators can play a key role in temperature monitoring for portable devices like smartphones.

Electrical Engineer

A MyMaxim account provides quick online access to rich technical resources.

Factory Robotics

Industrial communications ICs with isolation support industrial automation equipment.

TWS earbud and cradle with USB charging

Block diagram of a TWS earbud and cradle with USB charging.

TWS earbud

TWS earbud and cradle with USB and wireless charging.

Smartphone

Smartphone for Seniors Gets Smarter with Health Monitoring

MAXNANOPWRBD# evaluation kit

MAXNANOPWRBD# provides a fully assembled and tested kit for evaluating an array of ultra-low-power ICs.

LED headlights

MAX25610A/B LED drivers enable highly efficient and compact LED lighting applications.

Radio Bridge

Radio Bridge develops long-range, low-cost wireless sensor solutions for a variety of end markets.

Radio Bridge

Radio Bridge develops long-range, low-cost wireless sensor solutions for a variety of end markets.

Building automation technology

Power management ICs help support effective building automation technologies.

Smartwatch clock

Small, low-power RTCs are ideal for compact, portable designs.

Industrial Control System

RS-485 is an ideal communications standard for noisy industrial environments.

ProtoCentral MAX30003 breakout board

Breakout boards like ProtoCentral’s MAX30003 product help you quickly evaluate and test-drive the MAX30003 biopotential AFE.

Industrial IoT application

Small, efficient, and rugged ICs are critical components in an IIoT application.

Maxim Summer Interns Showcase Their Technical Talents

Maxim’s summer 2019 interns showcase their talents in areas including electrical engineering, finance, marketing, and legal.

Laptop clock

An accurate, low-power RTC keeps clocking applications running reliably.

How Secure Authenticators Prevent Counterfeiting of Medical Disposables

Medical disposables such as pulse oximeters can be easily protected with secure authenticators.

Clock

In addition to clocking functionality, RTCs can help save power and reduce size for compact designs.

Smartwatch for healthcare

Smartwatches and other wearables can help reduce healthcare costs.

How Dynamic Voltage Scaling Saves Power in Wearables

Wearables that provide continuous, real-time monitoring of vitals such as heart rate are designed to operate reliably under varying conditions and use cases. Dynamic voltage scaling can complement other techniques to minimize power and extend battery life.

Smart Lock

Embedded electronic authentication can help ensure that smart locks do their job.

Battery-powered portable devices

Power converters for portables must be small and efficient.

Camera batteries

Keep portable device batteries safe during operation with battery monitors, protectors, and fuel gauge ICs.

Power management IC diagram

A power management IC provides an efficient way to power wearables.

Startup team brainstorm session

Startups working to get their products off the ground can take advantage of Maxim’s free design pack for fast prototyping.

Sensors Expo: See Wearable Healthcare Technologies in Action

Jogger with Fitness Tracker

Fitness trackers are among the many health and fitness wearables for which designers need reliable, power-efficient, and tiny sensors and ICs.

Silicon wafer probe testing

Silicon wafer probe testing

To reduce semiconductor testing costs, increase throughput with dual-channel pin electronics like the MAX9979.

How to Derive More System Efficiency from Battery-Powered Designs

Video game controller

Buck controllers can support the efficiency and battery life requirements of portable electronics.

Vehicle emissions

Vehicle emissions

Supervisory and watchdog-timer ICs play a role in helping vehicles meet strict emissions standards.

Understand How Physically Unclonable Function Technology Can Benefit Your Design

Understand How Physically Unclonable Function Technology Can Benefit Your Design

Learn why physically unclonable function (PUF) technology should be part of your embedded design security strategy.

MAXREFDES1160 - Full-duplex, 500kbps and 2.75kVRMS Isolated RS-485 Module Using the MAX14853

Learn to design an isolated RS-485 communication module with MAXREFDES1160.

Industry 4.0 manufacturing

Industry 4.0 manufacturing

Small, efficient DC-DC power modules power the sensors that bring intelligence to smart factories.

Smart Building

Smart buildings need smart power management technologies that meet efficiency, size, safety, and reliability requirements.]

Center Information Display

Vehicle displays like the CID must meet ASIL B requirements for functional safety.

Video game console

FPGA designs, such as this video game console, benefit from multiphase buck regulators in the power supply.

How Ceramic Voltage References Enhance Long-Term Drift Performance

In industrial equipment, such as this automated machine, accurate voltage references are essential for high performance.

Maxim Is Going to the Dogs in 2020

As Maxim reaches out to new markets, it has found its newest long-tail opportunity in high-end canine accessories.

Introduction to the MAX5861 DOCSIS 3.1 High-Density SCQAM and OFDM Downstream Cable Modulator

This video provides an introduction to Maxim’s DOCSIS 3.1 High-Density SCQAM and OFDM Downstream Cable Modulator – the MAX5861.

Cost-Effective, Efficient Solar 

 

“The JinkoMX modules (with Maxim cell-string optimizers) provide technology that helps mitigate shading issues at a price point below other alternatives.”
 -Caleb Arthur, CEO, Missouri Sun Solar


Featured products: Cell-string optimizers

Read Their Story ›

Fundamentals of Error Correction Codes

Learn why and how computing devices detect and correct errors. Discover error correction options using the MAX32665 low-power Arm®-Cortex®-M4 microcontroller.

Learn More: MAX32665 ›

Introduction to the MAX14815 Octal 5 Levels Pulser with T/R Switch and Embedded Beamforming

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's Octal 5 Levels Pulser with T/R Switch and Embedded Beamforming - the MAX14815.

Introduction to the MAX30134 4-Channel Ultra-low Power Electrochemical Sensor AFE

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's 4-Channel Ultra-low Power Electrochemical Sensor AFE - the MAX30134.

Introduction to the MAX17630 and MAX17631 4.5V to 36V, 1A and 1.5A, High-Efficiency, Synchronous Step-Down DC-DC Converters

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's high-efficiency, high-voltage, synchronous step-down DC-DC converter with integrated MOSFETs - the MAX17630 and MAX17631.

Introduction to the MAX6078A Low-Power, Low-Drift and Low-Noise Voltage Reference

This video provides an introduction to Maxim’s Low-Power, Low-Drift and Low-Noise Voltage Reference the MAX6078A and MAX6078B

Introduction to the MAX20011 Automotive Single 8A/12A Step-Down Converter with High Efficiency

This video provides an introduction to Maxim's Automotive Single 8A/12A Step-Down Converter with High Efficiency - the MAX20011.

Smartwatch for Health Monitoring

Smartwatches and other wearables provide continuous health monitoring.

Evaluation Kit for 2.9V to 5.5V, 1A uSLIC Power Module for 1.5V Output

MAXM17623EVKIT

Integrated power solution provides 1.5V from an input range of 2.9V to 5.5V with up to 1A of current.

Learn more ›

Get the Highest Level of Safety with an ASIL-D Battery Monitor IC

Achieving safety compliance in automotive applications can require adding redundant components to the system. The MAX17853 is the only ASIL-D-compliant IC for mid-to-large cell count configurations, enabling engineers to create a system that meets the highest level of safety for voltage, temperature, and communication.

Learn more: MAX17853 ›

Boosting Sight for the Visually Impaired

 

“It’s all the little things that Maxim helped us with which add up to make a significant difference.”
 -Patrick Antaki, Co-Founder and President, Evergaze


Featured products: Maxim lens driver, MAX44009, MAX8834, MAX77818, Maxim overvoltage protector ICs

Read Their Story ›

Solar Power in Shady Places

 

“Maxim’s junction box integrated cell-string optimizer has given us maximum design and layout flexibility to put panels on multiple roof planes without compromising performance.”
 -Anand Janaswamy, SVP, Product Development and Utilization at OneRoof Energy


Featured products: Cell-string optimizers

Read Their Story ›

Maxim Power Solutions for Xilinx FPGAs

Here’s evidence that Maxim and Xilinx have been working closely together, to help you power up Xilinx FPGAs without a lot of time, budget, or power supply expertise. Minimize power dissipation and board space, and get to market sooner.

Learn more:  Xilinx Power Partnership ›

Halloween Candy Dispensing Robot

Robot built with Adafruit components dispenses Halloween candy.

Halloween Dropping Spider on Doorbell

Arduino, an ultrasonic sensor, and a servo bring a “dropping spider” prank to life for Halloween.

Laser Tag Game Dispensers

IoT Laser Tag, built with Adafruit components, can be a fun Halloween game.