应用笔记 3447

用MAX2742构建GPS接收机


摘要 : 利用集成CMOS RF前端GPS接收机MAX2742,附加极少的外部元件,即可构成一个完整的GPS解决方案。

概述

MAX2742是CMOS、单芯片、GPS前端下变频器。这款性能优异的器件只需消耗极低的功率(32mW,2.4V),并且不需要昂贵的IF SAW滤波器和体积庞大的分立IF SAW滤波器。MAX2742片内集成了低噪声放大器(LNA)、混频器、BPF、自动增益控制放大器(AGC)、本振合成器、时钟缓冲器和内部数字采样器。

该器件能够与许多商用GPS基带IC接口,适合多种应用,其中包括:汽车导航、远程信息处理、自动安全监控、资产跟踪、定位服务(LBS)及其它消费类电子产品。用MAX2742构成一个完整的GPS RF解决方案只需少量的外部元件。以下给出了系统框图。

MAX2742工作于18.414MHz*晶体或TXCO,提供差分或单端** IF输出(1.023MHz)。总的信号变换增益为120dB,噪声系数4.5dB。IF信号以18.414MHz的参考时钟频率进行采样。

详细信息请参考MAX2742数据资料

* 注:18.414MHz是1.023MHz的18倍,1.023MHz是GPS基频10.23MHz的十分之一。
** 注:有三个IF输出引脚—一对儿差分输出和一个单端输出,由第10引脚控制选择。

完备的GPS RF前端方案

图1给示了Maxim完整的GPS RF方案的重要结构框图和特点。表1给出了框图说明,表2给出了级联特性。图2所示电路是用MAX2742构成的GPS接收机的RF电路。

图1. GPS RF前端框图
图1. GPS RF前端框图

表1. RF部分系统框图
Block Description Note
GPS antenna Active GPS antenna, commonly has ~1.5dB NF and ~20dB gain  
LNA MAX2641/MAX2654/MAX2655 LNA External LNA is required when active GPS antenna may not be present.
RF SAW RF bandpass filter centered at 1575.42MHz RF BPF is required for jammer immunity
Power management MAX8510 low-noise LDO  
RF downconverter MAX2742  
Reference clock 18.414MHz crystal/TCXO  
DSP Baseband processor  

表2. 系统级联特性
Specification Cascaded Performance Note
Gain 131dB Without active antenna, assuming 15dB external LNA gain, 3dB BPF loss, and 1dB matching network loss
Noise Figure 1.9dB Without active antenna, assuming 1.5dB external LNA NF
Power Consumption 20mA MAX2744+MAX2654 as an example

图2. 用MAX2742构成的GPS RF部分原理图
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图2. 用MAX2742构成的GPS RF部分原理图

完备的GPS接收机方案

构建一个完整的GPS接收机,除了RF和基带IC外,还需要其它电路。如图3所示,天线电源控制电路、复位电路、延时电路等都是必需的。表3给出了框图说明;表4给出了级联特性。

图3. 完整的GPS接收机框图
图3. 完整的GPS接收机框图

表3. 系统各部分电路
Block Description Note
GPS Antenna GPS antenna Refer to the RF portion for details.
LNA MAX2654 LNA Refer to the RF portion for details.
RF SAW RF bandpass Refer to the RF portion for details.
Power management MAX8510 low-noise LDO  
RF downconverter MAX2742  
Reference clock 18.414MHz TCXO The TCXO also supplies the baseband clock. In this reference design, GPS clock output from the MAX2742 is not used.
GPS baseband Sony CXD2932 The CXD2932 also controls active antenna supply, RESET function. See details below.
Antenna control block Antenna supply control with p-MOSFET and current-sense resistor The sense resistor feeds the antenna supply information back to CXD2932. There are three possible conditions: normal, short, and open.
RESET/delay circuitry Different levels of RESET, and delay circuit required by CXD2932 To ensure successful startup, CXD2932 requires two RESET signals 100ms apart.
Baseband interface TX: external control command  
RX: GPS data out Data-rate programmable
1PPS: one pulse-per-second signal This signal is aligned with GPS atomic clock.

图4给出了参考设计的实际PCB布线图。这个完整的解决方案仅占用25mm x 25mm的PCB空间。

图4. GPS接收机PCB布线
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图4. GPS接收机PCB布线

表4. 模块性能(LNA + MAX2742 + SONY CXD2932)
No. Parameter Symbol Conditions System Specifications Maxim Target Measured Units
1 Power supply VCC (Note 1) 2.7 ~ 3.6   T.C. V
2 Current consumption ICC VCC = 3.0V   91 88 mA
3.1 Sensitivity Sens Acquisition Tracking -145 -145 dBm
3.2     -138 -138
4 TTFF TFC Cold start   58 (typ) 60 (max) s
5 TFW Warm start   45 30 (max) s
6 TFH Hot start   17 6 (max) s
7 Position drift range PR 95% possibility   100 90 ft
8 1PPS output accuracy 1PPS     1 N.M. ns

注1:T.C. = 测试条件,N.M. = 没有测试。
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APP 3447:
应用笔记 3447,AN3447, AN 3447, APP3447, Appnote3447, Appnote 3447